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Theories of Employee Motivation Dionne Roberson Chapter 8.

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1 Theories of Employee Motivation Dionne Roberson Chapter 8

2 What is Motivation?  Motivation is defined as an internal state that induces a person to engage in particular behaviors  Work motivation theories are concerned with the reasons why some people perform their job better than others.

3 Work Motivation Theories  There are 7 Motivation Theories: 1. Need Theories 2. Reinforcement Theory 3. Expectancy Theory 4. Self-Efficacy Theory 5. Equity Theory 6. Goal-Setting Theory 7. Action Theory

4 Need Theories  Need Theories view motivation as deriving from people’s desires for certain things.  There are three need theories: 1. Need Hierarchy Theory 2. ERG Theory 3. Two-Factor Theory

5 Need Theories Self-Actualization Esteem Love Safety Physiological Need Hierarchy Theory  Maslow’s need hierarchy theory states that human needs are based on physical and psychological health.

6 Need Theories ERG Theory  Aldefer’s existence, relatedness, growth theory focuses on three needs.  According to Aldefer people can move back and forth from one need to another. ExistenceRelatedness Growth

7 Need Theories Two-Factor Theory  Herzberg’s two-factor theory states that motivation comes from the job itself, not external rewards. Hygiene Factors- job aspects relevant to the animal needs of human nature such as psychological needs Motivator Factors- job aspects relevant to growth needs such as recognition.

8 Reinforcement Theory  This theory describes how rewards can affect behavior.  Law of effect- states that probability of a particular behavior increases if it is followed by a reward.  Rewards can be tangible (money) or intangible (praise).

9 Expectancy Theory  This theory attempts explain how rewards lead to behavior by focusing on internal cognitive states that lead to motivation.  Vroom’s theory has been adapted to the I/O field. Vroom’s theory explains motivation as a math function of expectancy, valence, and instrumentalities. Force = Expectancy x  (Valence x Instrumentalities)

10 Self- Efficacy Theory  This theory states that motivation and performance is determined by how effective people believe they can be. High self-efficacy = people believe that they are capable of accomplishing a task and will be motivated put forth effort Low self-efficacy = people don’t believe they can do the job and they are not motivated to put forth effort.

11 Equity Theory  States that people are motivated to achieve a condition of fairness in their dealings with other people and with organizations.  This theory specifies conditions under which inequity will occur and how employees will react.  Employees will evaluate how much they receive from the job (outcomes) in relation to their contributions( inputs) Outcomes/ Inputs  Inequity occurs when employees feel as if his/her ratio is different from others

12 Goal-Setting Theory  Basic principle states that people’s behavior is motivated by their internal intentions, goals, or objectives  Goal is what a person consciously wants to attain or achieve

13 Goal-Setting Theory  Goals Affect behavior in 4 ways: 1. Direct Attention and action to behaviors that the person believes will achieve the goal. 2. Mobilize effort in that the person tries harder 3. Increase persistence, resulting in more time spent on the behaviors necessary for goal attainment 4. Motivate the search for effective strategies to attain them.

14 Action Theory  This theory states that work motivation theories should focus mainly on goal- oriented or or voluntary behaviors called actions. Action process- linking a hierarchy of cognitions to both actions and feedback from the environment Desire for something Goal Development Plan Generation Plan Execution Feedback

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