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This chapter is brought to you by… Do you accept the challenge?

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1 This chapter is brought to you by… Do you accept the challenge?

2 Chapter 4 Migration: People on the move

3 In this chapter you, will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of migration and its impact on post World War 1 – Canada. This is Canada between the years 1920 and today.

4 Key Questions Why do people migrate? How has immigration to Canada changed from 1920 to the present? How have the destinations of migrants within Canada changed? How does emigration affect Canada?

5 What does migrate mean? To migrate is to move to a new location.

6 Who migrates? Birds migrate Fish migrate

7 Caribou migrate

8 And humans migrate Forced migration A few who choose to migrate

9 Some are faced with unusual conditions.

10 First Nations and Inuit There are a number of theories about the origins of the first human inhabitants of Canada. One well- accepted theory… ….The first people migrated here sometime between 50,000 and 13,500 years ago.

11 …through the Bering Strait. (this is one theory) They became Mi’kmaq, Algonquin, Aztek, Inca, Mayan, Cherokee, etc.

12 The first people to live here were the First Nations and Inuit people. So this means the first immigrants were…..? Think about it.

13 This cartoon pokes fun at the fact that aboriginals were the first people to live here and Europeans were the first immigrants. We seem to forget WE were immigrants too.

14 Why move? (It seems like a lot of work.) There are many reasons why people migrate. There are two categories of reasons. Push factors cause people to want to leave their current location. Examples are: lack of freedom, war, famine, climate change, natural disasters and unemployment.

15 Pull factors attract people to a new location. Examples are greater economic opportunity, availability of land, the reunion of families, the discovery of resources, access to technology and a democratic political system. Look at figures 4.2 – 4.6 for more examples. Do Review and Reflect #1 on page 59. Also #2 and #3 on page 60.

16 End Part 1

17 Key Terms to know for today: Multiculturalism Ethnocentrism Prejudice Discrimination

18 Changing Immigration Patterns Today, Canada has a Reputation for welcoming Immigrants from all over The world. This wasn’t always true…

19 Multiculturalism Canada now attempts to promote an identity based on peace, justice, human rights and multiculturalism. Multiculturalism supports the traditions and identities of many cultural groups living in Canada.


21 Multiculturalism and the acceptance of “others” has not always been the case in Canada.

22 Ethnocentrism In the past Canadians were typically.. 1. White 2. English 3. Christian When people are ethnocentric it means they believe their way of life was superior and did not respect cultures that were different from their own.

23 Think of one ethnocentric German. Adolf Hitler He believed his race was superior and proceeded to kill over 6 million Jews. Did Canada do anything to help? No. More on that later.

24 Prejudice Ethnocentrism led a government policy influenced by prejudice, the belief that not all people have equal value. Most people weren’t allowed to migrate to Canada. Who was?

25 Welcome to Canada people from… ScotlandEngland FranceIreland Switzerlandeven… Germany

26 You may not live here if you are from… Southern Europe Eastern Europe Asia Africa Is this fair? No, it’s called … discrimination.

27 An example of Canada’s racist immigration policy African-American farmers from the United States were turned back at the Canadian border in the early 1900s. Officials said they were not suited to our climate.

28 Another example of racism… The Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 forbade (did not allow) the entry of Chinese people into Canada. The law was not repealed until 1947.

29 A third example of Canadian Immigration racism… Canada was unwilling to accept Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Some Jewish refugees who did make it to Canada during WW2 were put into prison camps along with German prisoners of war.

30 Begin day 3

31 Immigration before 1945 Around the year 1910 the government was encouraging immigration, and offered new land to settlers from Great Britain and the United States. Even some people from Eastern Europe were targeted.

32 Great Britain to Canada

33 1920s By the 1920s immigration was in decline or at least slowing. Since most land on the Prairies was no longer available these immigrants moved to cities and took jobs in industries. Others took jobs on railways, or in the mines.

34 Japanese miners in Vancouver

35 1930s Great Depression The Great Depression of the 1930s caused high unemployment… …(is immigration going up or down?) During this time Canada’s economy didn’t create enough jobs for people already in Canada.

36 During the Great Depression Canadians were struggling to make a living.

37 Jewish immigration during the 1930s DESTINATION # OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS United States240, 000 Palestine100, 000 Great Britain 85, 000 Argentina 22, 000 Mexico 20, 000 Canada under 4, 000

38 Jewish Immigration Many smaller and poorer countries took in many Jewish refugees. Fewer than 4000 found safety in Canada. Why were they refugees? That’s right…they were being killed by Hitler and the Nazi party.

39 Immigration after 1945 The Second World War, from 1939-1945 caused many changes in Canada. - After the war Canadians began to react more positively to those seeking refuge here.

40 In 1947 Canada began taking refugees for humanitarian reasons: - 1947-1950: Displaced persons (refugees from Europe following WW2. - 1956: Hungarian refugees - 1975-1981: Indo-Chinese refugees (sometimes referred to as “boat people”

41 Boat People

42 Today’s Immigration Since 1976 immigrants were divided into three classes: Family class – A close relative living in Canada can sponsor family members Humanitarian /Refugee class – An immigrant fleeing danger in his/her homeland. Independent class – These people must meet a point system to decide if they are a positive fit in Canada.

43 Citizenship and Immigration Canada it-test.asp

44 Can you answer questions immigrants to Canada must answer? 1. Which 3 aboriginal groups are recognized in the constitution? Indian, Inuit, and Metis 2. Who is the leader of the Conservative Party of Canada Rt. Hon. Stephen Harper 3. How many provinces are there in Canada? Ten (There is also a language test)

45 Group work Group 1 – In favor of immigration Group 2 – Opposed to immigration Group 3 – In favor of refugees Group 4 – Opposed to refugees

46 1. Read page 64 in the text. 2. Work on page 65 #s 2, 3 and 5 3. Read page 66 and 68.

47 Changing Migration Destinations within Canada Migration within Canada has changed since the 1920s. Are there push and pull factors within our own country? Why?

48 Changing Migration Destinations within Canada Where is there well-paying work? Which location has the best prospects for the future?

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