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Wednesday Dec 17 STI’s HIV/AIDS Section 22.3 HIV and AIDS Objectives

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1 Wednesday Dec 17 STI’s HIV/AIDS Section 22.3 HIV and AIDS Objectives
Explain how HIV infection leads to AIDS. Wednesday Dec 17 STI’s HIV/AIDS Describe how HIV is transmitted from person to person. Summarize the state of HIV infection and AIDS throughout the world.

MYTH: A person can be infected with HIV through the bite of a mosquito FACT: There are no cases of HIV transmission through the bite of any insect, including mosquitoes. MYTH: Only male homosexuals get AIDS. FACT: Anyone who engages in high-risk behavior is at risk of contracting HIV. Men, women, and children get AIDS. MYTH: You can tell if a person is infected with HIV just by the way he or she looks. FACT: People can harbor HIV in their bodies for many years without showing any signs of illness. MYTH: A person infected with HIV cannot infect another person until he or she develops symptoms of AIDS. FACT: Any time after being infected with HIV, a person can transmit the virus to another person through body fluids, such as blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. MYTH: You are likely to get infected with HIV from blood used in a transfusion during an operation in a hospital. FACT: Since 1985, when blood test for HIV was put into use, the chances of getting HIV from blood transfusions have become extremely small in this country.

3 What do you already know about HIV/AIDS?
Using your smartphone, tablet, iPad or laptop login to socrative at: Type in room number: Answer the questions on the quiz. When you are finished, share your electronic device with another student if they do not have one.


5 HIV Infection The most serious incurable STI is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV. HIV infection can lead to AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which is an often fatal disease of the immune system. HIV attacks specific cells of the immune system, disabling the body’s defenses against other pathogens. When the immune system becomes severely disabled, the infected person has AIDS.

6 How HIV Attacks the Immune System
Inside the body, HIV infects helper T cells, which stimulate other cells of the immune system to produce antibodies against invading pathogens. Inside a helper T cell, HIV reproduces, killing the cell in the process. The new viruses are released from the cell and move on to destroy other helper T cells.

7 Stages of HIV Infection
Asymptomatic Stage Soon after exposure to HIV, an infected person may experience flulike symptoms, which usually go away after a few weeks. Because of the lack of symptoms, this period is called the asymptomatic stage. Symptomatic Stage Symptoms may include weight loss, a persistent fever, diarrhea, or fungal infections. AIDS The onset of AIDS is usually marked by a very low number of helper T cells in the blood. At this stage, HIV-infected people are usually experiencing even more severe symptoms than in the symptomatic stage.


9 Opportunistic Infections
The infections that attack a person with a weakened immune system are called opportunistic infections. These opportunistic infections include tuberculosis fungal infections a lung disease called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (noo moh SIS tis kuh RY nee eye) Certain types of cancer are also more common in people with AIDS, including cancer of the cervix and Kaposi’s sarcoma (kuh POH seez sahr KOH muh), a kind of skin cancer.

10 Transmission of HIV People with HIV are infectious whether or not they have any symptoms of disease. Individuals infected with HIV can pass the virus on to someone else through the exchange of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, or breast milk.

11 Risky Behaviors Sexual Contact HIV can be transmitted through any form of sexual contact that involves contact with an infected person’s body fluids, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. Shared Needles HIV can be transmitted through shared needles or syringes that are contaminated with the blood of an infected person. Contact With Blood HIV can be transmitted if a person has an open cut or sore that comes into contact with the blood or blood parts of an infected person. Mother to Baby HIV can pass from an infected mother to her child, either during pregnancy, birth, or breast-feeding.

12 Safe Behaviors HIV is not transmitted by casual contact.
Small amounts of HIV occur in saliva, tears, and perspiration. However, the amounts are so small that infection from contact with these fluids is unlikely.

13 The Safety of Donated Blood
The risk of getting HIV from blood transfusions is extremely small. Blood that tests positive for HIV antibodies is discarded. Potential donors are interviewed and are not allowed to give blood if they have engaged in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection.

14 A Global Problem With approximately 40 million people infected around the world, HIV and AIDS represent a global health problem. Africa Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for more than half of all global infections. Asia HIV infections are also increasing in certain parts of Asia.

15 High-Risk Groups In many countries, young women represent the majority of new HIV infections. The higher infection rates in women are often due to a lack of information about how to protect themselves or, in some cases, a lack of power to protect themselves.

16 HIV & AIDS Quiz Answers What do the letters HIV stand for? Human
Immunodeficiency Virus What do the letters AIDS stand for? Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

17 HIV & AIDS Quiz What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS HIV is passed from person to person from four body fluids. People don’t transmit AIDS, they transmit the virus that causes AIDS, i.e. HIV HIV gets into the body and takes over the CD-4 cells, those cells that are critical to helping our bodies fight off disease. AIDS is diagnosed if their CD-4 count goes below 200 compared to around 1000 for people with health immune systems.

18 HIV & AIDS Quiz What are the four body fluids that can transmit HIV?
Blood Semen Vaginal Fluids Breast Milk What are the three common ways to transmit HIV? Vaginal, anal and oral sex without a barrier. Sharing needles/works for injection drug use. Mother-to-Child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding.

19 HIV & AIDS Quiz How long should a person wait to get tested if they think they may have been exposed to HIV and why? 3 months. HIV tests look for the antibodies that our bodies create to fight off HIV. It can take up to three months, and sometimes longer, for our bodies to develop enough antibodies to show up on a test.

20 HIV & AIDS Quiz Name three ways that a person can reduce their risk of getting HIV? Abstinence from sex and injection drug use Protected oral, vaginal and anal sex No sharing of needles Mutual Monogamy Get tested regularly and ask your partner(s) to get tested, but remember that recent infection probably won’t show up!

21 Vocabulary HIV The human immunodeficiency virus, an incurable sexually transmitted infection that can lead to AIDS. AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, an often fatal disease of the immune system caused by HIV infection. asymptomatic stage The stage of HIV infection in which the infected person shows no symptoms. opportunistic infection An infection that attacks a person with a weakened immune system.

22 Enter classroom #: 792228 STD/HIV Post-Quiz
This quiz will be completed by your table group. One person with a smartphone will need to login to Socrative. Using the Socrative Student app or go to Enter classroom #: Wait for the next instructions.



25 STD/HIV/AIDS Review Login to and type in room number With a partner, answer the questions on the STD/HIV/AIDS Review.

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