TREATIES, TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY, AND THE INDIAN WARS Goal: We can analyze the impact that American treaties and conflict had on Native Americans. Land Loss was due to: 1.Broken Treaties 2.Indian Wars 3.Land Grabs/Allotments 4.Assimilation (more on this later)
LAND LOSSES http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_vault/2014/06 /17/interactive_map_loss_of_indian_land.html
AFTER THE TRAIL OF TEARS Gold discovered in California, 1848 Speculators, settlers, miners moved west 30 years of “Indian Wars”
BROKEN TREATIES U.S. Constitution established Native American tribes as sovereign nations.
BROKEN PROMISES, FALSE ASSUMPTIONS Treaties often were not followed or only partially followed. Treaty of Fort Laramie - guaranteed Lakota ownership of the Black Hills in South Dakota/Wyoming Repeatedly violated by gold prospectors Often, treaties incorporated “civilization” project
THE STEVENS TREATIES Isaac Stevens met with numerous Native groups in Washington from 1854-56 Signed 14 different treaties. Native Americans were to move to reservations Often small and on poor pieces of land U.S. government would provide schools for Indians Free medical care would be offered Treaties reflected the view that Indians had to be “taken care of” and changed to be more like white culture.
INDIAN WARS 1860 - 1890s - Plains Indians Wars - Americans and plains Indians clashed as Americans attempted to force Indians onto reservations. Battle of Little Bighorn - Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and his regiment of 250 where all killed by approximately 4500 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors Battle at Wounded Knee - thousands of Cheyenne men, women and children were slaughtered by the American Calvary. Wounded Knee represented the end of any real armed resistance on the part of the Native American.
THE YAKAMA WAR After the Yakama Nation had moved to a reservation, gold was discovered there. White miners trespassed on the reservation, sparking the conflict. Seattle was attacked by Native Americans U.S. Army sent 600 soldiers to retaliate; killed 700 horses and hanged 24 Native leaders. Yakama tribe was forced to sign a peace treaty, ending the war.
THE DAWES ACT, 1887 Provided for the following: 1. Each Indian family head be allotted a 160 acre farm out of reservation lands – much unsuitable for farming 2. Each new land owner who abandoned tribal practices and adopted the "habits of civilized life" would be granted American citizenship. 3. "Surplus" reservation lands would be made available to sell to white settlers. Repealed in 1934
EXIT TICKET How did the actions of the U.S. Government impact Native Americans in the mid-to-late 19th century? Use 3 examples.