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Native American Struggles The Battle for the West.

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Presentation on theme: "Native American Struggles The Battle for the West."— Presentation transcript:


2 Native American Struggles The Battle for the West

3 Focus Question Was the U.S. Native American policy (1865-1890’s) and its subsequent result a genocide?


5 Causes of White Settlement Gold Rushes Homestead Act –1863 Transcontinental RR –Union Pacific & Central Pacific –Promontory Point, Utah –1869 –“The Golden Spike”


7 By 1860’s Native Americans had been pushed beyond the Mississippi As white settlers moved west, NA’s were further isolated U.S. Gov’t adopts the “Reservation Policy” The Indian Wars begin

8 Plains Indians Lived Nomadic Life Followed Buffalo Herds Whites killed Buffalo as they moved West –Trapping, sport, policy?

9 Buffalo Bill Cody – obfuscation of history begins

10 New “Indian” Policy Started in late 1860’s Native Americans moved to Reservations Poor land Government Trickery Many Native Americans resisted


12 Nez Perce NW – semi-nomadic tribe By 1870’s are being force from their land Nez Perce lead U.S. army on 1800 mile chase into Canada Surrender in 1877 Last great battles of the Indian Wars Chief Joseph – “I will fight no more forever”

13 Chief Joseph

14 The Indian Wars Overview

15 Butchery on Both Sides Indians raided white settlements U.S. Army Troops slaughtered entire villages Indians won some battles but were outnumbered & outgunned

16 Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 General George Armstrong Custer Sitting Bull Sioux tribe defeats Custer




20 Fort Laramie Treaty Lakota, Sioux, Arapaho were granted land in the Black Hills (1868)  Discover of gold > white incursion > Black Hills War  U.S. Gov’t seizes Black Hills in 1877

21 Apache Wars Apache tribe of the South West Desert 10 year uprising led by Geronimo US troops chased him all over desert “Last Native American to surrender”


23 The Genocide Continues? Dawes Act of 1887 Native Americans stripped of culture (assimilation) Forced to accept white ways Reservations broken up Land bought up by land speculators


25 Wounded Knee “Ghost Dance” to regain Sioux greatness Police killed Sitting Bull while trying to arrest him Sioux fled in fear 150 Sioux & 25 soldiers killed near Wounded Knee Creek

26 The Struggle Continues

27 AIM & 2 nd Wounded Knee American Indian Movement (AIM) 1960’s & 70’s – NA activist org Takeover of Bureau of Indian Affairs 1972 –“Trail of Broken Treaties” –500 AIM members take over building to bring attention to NA plight after failed negations Standoff @ Wounded Knee ’73 –Sioux @ Pine Ridge hold res. For 77 days –AIM had gathered for meeting & were surrounded by police & fed marshals

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