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The Lymphatic & Immune System Crystal Maravilla, Jerrod Villasenor, Juan Orona.

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Presentation on theme: "The Lymphatic & Immune System Crystal Maravilla, Jerrod Villasenor, Juan Orona."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Lymphatic & Immune System Crystal Maravilla, Jerrod Villasenor, Juan Orona

2 What is the Lymphatic System? ●Network of tubes throughout the body that drains lymph which bathes tissues and empties it back into the bloodstream. ●Structures include: ● lymphatic vessels ● lymph nodes ● lymph capillaries ● lymph trunks ● spleen ● thymus

3 Lymphatic System Structures Lymphatic Vessels: ●Functions: ●Transport and filter lymph before directing it to the heart. ●Location: ●Alongside from arteries or veins.

4 Lymph Capillaries ●Function: ●Served to drain and process extracellular fluids. ●Location: ●Spaces between cells

5 Lymph Trunk ●Functions: ●Drains into ducts bringing lymph into blood by emptying into subclavian veins. ●Two lymphatic ducts: ● Right lymphatic duct & thoracic duct. ●Pairs of trunks: ●Jugular, subclavian, bronchom,lumbar, and intestinal (unpaired)

6 Lymph Trunk cont. ●Location: ●Throughout the body.

7 Lymph Nodes ●Functions: ●Produces lymphocytes to protect lymph. ●Location ●Thorax and abdomen

8 Spleen Functions: ●Recycles old red blood cells ●Stores white blood cells ●Stores platelets ●Location: ●Under the ribcage

9 Thymus ●Functions: ●Training and development in T-cells. ●Location: ●Behind sternum ●Between lungs

10 Fluid Formation ●Formed when interstitial fluid is collected through lymph capillaries ●It is then transported through lymph vessels to lymph nodes before being emptied into veins where it mixes back with blood ●Lymph is a milky fluid formed from the excess fluid surrounding body tissue ●Hydrostatic pressure from the heart forces fluid to leave the blood vessels to form lymph

11 Fluid Formation Cont.

12 Immune System ●Giant network that consists of: ○Cells ○Tissues ○Organs ●Helps protect body from ○Viruses ○Bacteria ○Parasites ○Fungi

13 Specific Immune Cells ●Macrophages: engulf antigens; inform T lymphocytes o Develop from monocytes o Part of the innate immune process ●Cytoxic T cells (natural killer cells): o Remove tumors o Remove infected body cells o Produces cytokines ●Cytokines: o Messenger of the immune system o Some stimulate activity o Inhibit activity o Interferons, interfere with virus reproduction

14 Continued... ●Helper T cells secrete/produce chemicals that: o Promote memory cells o Promote effectors o Release cytokines o Suppresses or regulates immune responses ●B cells: o Many become plasma cells o Produce antibodies o Other into memory B cells ●Effector cell: seek & destroy antigens ●Memory cell: become dormant; awakens when antigen enters again ●Antibodies: bind to antigens & recognized by lymphocytes ●Antigen: any foreign object in the body

15 Non-specific Cells ●Phagocytes: “eats” antigens ●Neutrophil: phagocytize bacteria o Most common white blood cell o Trap the bacteria ●Eosinophils secrete enzymes to kill: o Parasitic worms o Other pathogens o Targets objects to big to ingest o Normally involved in inflammation or allergic reactions ●Basophils: contains granules of toxic chemicals; normally for allergies o Release histamine o Attract neutrophils and eosinophils to trouble spot

16 Continued... ●Dendritic Cells: messenger between innate and adaptive immune systems o Help B cells maintain immune memory o Form numerous antibody antigen complexes ●Mast cells: “master regulators” o Contain inflammatory chemicals o Histamine o Serotonin o Important role in wound healing

17 Comparison of Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems ●Both granular and agranular leukocytes are involved ○Granular leukocytes: Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils ○Agranular leukocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes ○Lymphocytes include T cells, natural killer cells, and B cells ●Both enter into capillaries ●Lymph and plasma are both about 90% water

18 Comparison of the Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems Cont. ●Lymph vessels resemble veins ○ Both have thin walls and many check valves due to their shared functions of carrying fluids under low pressure ○ Both use skeletal muscle contractions to push the liquid forward ●Help to maintain homeostasis

19 Contrasts of the Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems ●Cardiovascular System: o Circulate blood throughout the body o Delivers essential nutrients and oxygen to the body o Remover wastes and carbon dioxide o Regulates the blood pressure o Blood flows in a continuous loop but lymph only flows one direction, upwards toward the neck

20 Contrasts of the Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems Cont. ●Lymphatic System: o Movement of interstitial fluid from the tissues to the circulatory system o Transports fatty acids from the digestive system o Most fatty acids absorbed thought the lymphatic system o Fight pathogens that have entered the body o Prevent infections by barring pathogens from entering the body o Develop immunity to infections

21 Works Cited "Immune System." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. N.p., 12 Mar. 2015. Web. 18 Mar. 2015. < immunesystem/Pages/default.aspx>. “Immune and Lymphatic System.” Inner Body. “Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases.” Live Science.

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