Presentation on theme: "Fresh Water Pollution By Oknha Eam. Pollution What is pollution? According to the Oxford Dictionary; Pollution is the presence in or introduction into."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Pollution There are 3 major types of pollution: Air PollutionWater Pollution Soil Pollution
What is Fresh water pollution? The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of freshwater.
Where can freshwater be found? 97.4% is oceans.2.6% Ice.0.014% drinkable.
2 types of freshwater pollution. Pollution of the surface water When the pollutant enters a lake, pond, or river Pollution of the ground water The pollutant finds its way into aquifer, along with water of percolation, it deteriorates the quality of groundwater
Surface water pollution. Domestic sewage, industrial waste, agricultural residues, radioactive substances and heated waste waters are some of the important pollutants. Four major causes: Domestic waste water and sewage Industrial wastes Agricultural wastes Physical pollutants
Domestic Waste Water and Sewage water-borne wastes derived from household activities such as bathing, laundering, food processing and washing of utensils. A major ingredient of detergents is phosphate. These produce offensive smell and choke the water bodies.
Industrial waste Most of the rivers and fresh water streams which pass near the major cities, townships or other human dwellings are polluted by industrial wastes or effluents.
Agriculture waste It includes the following types of waste: manure, and other wastes from farm and poultry houses, slaughterhouse waste, fertilizer runoff from croplands, harvest wastes, pesticides, and salt and silt drained from irrigated or eroded land.
Physical pollutants A pollutant characterized by its influence on environmental conditions caused by forces and operations of physics, such as noise, microwave radiation, vibration, etc. Physical water pollutants are either (a) much larger particles or (b) physical factors such as temperature change, both of which while not typically toxic, cause a variety of harmful effects.
Pollution of the ground water Saltwater encroachment associated with over drafting of aquifers or natural leaching from natural occurring deposits are natural sources of groundwater pollution.
Freshwater life zones. Freshwater life zones occur where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes. The major components of a freshwater ecosystem are producers (plants with roots and phytoplankton), consumers (zooplankton, fish, and turtles), and decomposers (bacteria and fungi).
Pollution affects freshwater ecosystem. Mostly. freshwater ecosystems may become unbalanced by factors due to human activities. Human activities affect the bioavailability of chemicals to organisms, cause temperature fluctuations, and modify rainfall, pH and salinity. Water-soluble wastes pollute water easily.
Species that can be affected. insects crustaceans fish amphibians arthropods plants fungi bacteria algae viruses
Adverse effects The main source of freshwater pollution can be attributed to discharge of untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent, and run-off from agricultural fields. 3 major effects Groundwater and its contamination Chemicals in drinking water Diseases
Groundwater and its contamination Many areas of groundwater and surface water are now contaminated with heavy metals, POPs (persistent organic pollutants), and nutrients that have an adverse affect on health. Sometimes the water gets polluted at source due to various reasons and mainly due to inflow of sewage into the source.
Chemicals in drinking water Chemicals in water can be both naturally occurring or introduced by human interference and can have serious health effects.
Diseases A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land or are added due to human activity dissolve in the water, thereby contaminating it and leading to various diseases.
Cure or alleviation Educate to change consumption and lifestyles Invent new water conservation technologies Recycle wastewater Improve irrigation and agricultural practices Appropriately price water Develop energy efficient desalination plants Improve water catchment and harvesting Look to community-based governance and partnerships Develop and enact better policies and regulations Holistically manage ecosystems Improve distribution infrastructure Shrink corporate water footprints Build international frameworks and institutional cooperation Address pollution R&D / Innovation Water projects in developing countries / transfer of technology Climate change mitigation Population growth control
Conclusion Water is the most important component that we need in our daily life. So by decreasing the water pollution is the same as saving our own lives.