Presentation on theme: "Everyday Memory and Memory Errors"— Presentation transcript:
1 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 8Everyday Memory and Memory Errors
2 Some Questions to Consider What kinds of events from their lives are people most likely to remember?Is there something special about memory for extraordinary events like the 9/11 terrorist attacks?What properties of the memory system make it both highly functional and also prone to error?Why is eyewitness testimony often cited as the cause of wrongful convictions?
3 Autobiographical Memory (AM) Recollected events that belong to a person’s pastMental time travelMultidimensionalSpatial, emotional, and sensory components
4 Autobiographical Memory Sensory componentGreenberg and Rubin (2003)Patients who cannot recognize objects also experience loss of autobiographical memoryVisual experience plays a role in forming and retrieving AM
5 Autobiographical Memory Cabeza and coworkers (2004)Comparing brain activation caused by autobiographical memory and laboratory memoryParticipants viewedPhotographs they took (A-photos)Photographs taken by someone else
6 Autobiographical Memory Both types of photos activated brain structures associated withEpisodic memoryProcessing scenesA-photos also activated brain structures associated withProcessing info about the selfMemory for visual spaceMental time travel memoryVery rich memories
7 Caption: (a) fMRI response of an area in the parietal cortex showing areas activated by both the A-photos and the L-photos during the memory test. The graph on the right indicates that activation was the same for A-photos and L-photos. (b) Areas in the parahippocampal gyrus that were activated by the A-photos and the L-photos. The graph indicates that in this area of the brain, activation was greater for the A-photos.
8 Memory Over the Lifespan What events are remembered well?Significant events in a person’s lifeHighly emotional eventsTransition points
9 Reminiscence BumpParticipants over the age of 40 asked to recall events in their livesMemory is high for recent events and for events that occurred in adolescence and early adulthood (between 10 and 30 years of age)
11 Hypotheses about the reminiscence bump Caption: Explanations for the reminiscence bump
12 Self-image hypothesis Reminiscence BumpSelf-image hypothesisMemory is enhanced for events that occur as a person’s self-image or life identity is being formedPeople assume identities during adolescence and young adulthoodMany transitions occur between ages 10 and 30
13 Reminiscence BumpCognitive hypothesisEncoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stabilityEvidence from those who emigrated to the US after young adulthood indicates reminiscence bump is shifted
15 Reminiscence BumpCultural life-script hypothesisEach person hasA personal life storyAn understanding of culturally expected eventsPersonal events are easier to recall when they fit the cultural life script
16 Memory for Emotional Stimuli Emotional events remembered more easily and vividlyEmotion improves memory, becomes greater with time (may enhance consolidation)Brain activity: amygdala
17 Flashbulb MemoriesMemory for circumstances surrounding shocking, highly charged important events9/11/01Kennedy assassinationChallenger explosionWhere you were, and what you were doing?
22 Flashbulb MemoriesDavidson and coworkers (2006)Memories for 9/11/01 more resistant to fading than memory for other events around that timeCues helped 9/11/01 memories more
23 Flashbulb MemoriesNarrative rehearsal hypothesisRepeated viewing/hearing of eventTV, talking with othersCould introduce errors in own memory
24 The Constructive Nature of Memory What actually happens + person’s knowledge, experiences, and expectations
25 The Constructive Nature of Memory Bartlett’s “war of the ghosts” experimentHad participants attempt to remember a story from a different cultureRepeated reproductionResultsOver time, reproduction became shorter, contained omissions and inaccuraciesChanged to make the story more consistent with their own culture
26 Source MonitoringSource memory: process of determining origins of our memoriesSource monitoring error: misidentifying source of memoryAlso called “source misattributions”
27 Caption: Design of Jacoby et al Caption: Design of Jacoby et al.’s (1989) “becoming famous overnight” experiment.
28 Source MonitoringJacoby et al. (1989)After 24 hours, some non-famous names were misidentified as famousExplanation: some non-famous names were familiar, and the participants misattributed the source of the familiarityFailed to identify the source as the list that had been read the previous day
29 Making InferencesMemory can be influenced by inferences that people make based on their experiences and knowledgeMemory often includes information that is implied by or is consistent with the to-be-remembered information but was not explicitly statedPragmatic inferences: based on knowledge gained through experience
30 Caption: Design and results of Bransford and Johnson’s (1973) experiment that tested people’s memory for the wording of action statements. More errors were made by participants in the experimental group because they identified more sentences as being originally presented, even though they were not.
31 Schemas and ScriptsSchema: knowledge about what is involved in a particular experiencePost office, ball game, classroomScript: conception of sequence of actions that occur during a particular experienceGoing to a restaurant; to the dentist
32 Schemas and ScriptsSchemas and scripts influence memoryMemory can include information not actually experienced but inferred because it is expected and consistent with the schemaOffice waiting room: books not present but mentioned in memory taskThe constructive nature of memory can lead to errors or “false memories”
33 Construction of Memories AdvantagesAllows us to “fill in the blanks”Cognition is creativeUnderstand languageSolve problemsMake decisions
34 Construction of Memories DisadvantagesSometimes we make errorsSometimes we misattribute the source of informationWas it actually presented, or did we infer it?
35 Power of SuggestionMisinformation effect: misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes the event laterMisleading postevent information (MPI)
36 Power of SuggestionLoftus and coworkers (1975)See slides of traffic accident with stop signIntroduce MPI: yield signParticipants remember what they heard (yield sign) not what they saw (stop sign)
37 Power of SuggestionLoftus and Palmer (1974)Hear “smashed” or “hit” in description of car accidentThose hearing “smashed” said the cars were going much faster than those who heard “hit”
38 Hypotheses about the misinformation effect Power of SuggestionHypotheses about the misinformation effectCaption: Explanations for the misinformation effect
39 Power of SuggestionMemory-trace replacement hypothesisMPI impairs or replaces memories that were formed during original event
40 Power of SuggestionRetroactive interferenceMore recent learning interferes with memory for something in the pastOriginal memory trace is not replaced
41 Power of SuggestionSource monitoring errorFailure to distinguish the source of the informationMPI is misattributed to the original source
42 Power of SuggestionLindsey (1990)Heard a story; two days later again with some details changedTold to ignore changesSame voice for both stories created source monitoring errorsChanging voice (male to female) did not create as many errors
43 False MemoriesHyman and coworkers (1995)Participants’ parents gave descriptions of childhood experiencesParticipant had conversation about experiences with experimenter; experimenter added new eventsWhen discussing it later, participant “remembered” the new events as actually happening
44 Errors in Eyewitness Testimony Testimony by an eyewitness to a crime about what he or she saw during the crimeOne of the most convincing types of evidence to a juryAssume that people see and remember accuratelyBut, like other memory, eyewitness testimony can be inaccurateMistaken identityConstructive nature of memory
45 Errors in Eyewitness Testimony Wells & Bradfield (1998)Participants view security videotape with gunman in view for 8 secondsEveryone identified someone as the gunman from photographs afterwardsThe actual gunman’s picture was not presented
46 Errors in Eyewitness Testimony Errors due to attention and arousalLow: attend to irrelevant informationHigh: focus too narrowlyModerate: best for being aware of relevant information
47 Caption: Results of Stanny and Johnson’s (2000) weapons-focus experiment. Presence of a weapon that was fired is associated with a decrease in memory about the perpetrator, the victim, and the weapon.
48 Errors in Eyewitness Testimony Errors due to familiaritySource monitoring
49 Caption: (a) Design of Ross et al Caption: (a) Design of Ross et al.’s (1994) experiment on the effect of familiarity on eyewitness testimony. (b) When the actual robber was not in the photospread, the male teacher was erroneously identified as the robber 60 percent of the time. (c) When the actual robber was in the photospread, the male teacher was erroneously identified less than 20 percent of the time.
50 Errors in Eyewitness Testimony Errors due to suggestionSuggestive questioningMisinformation effectConfirming feedback
51 Caption: Design and results of Wells and Bradfield’s (1998) “Good, you identified the suspect” experiment. The type of feedback from the experimenter influenced the participants’ confidence in their identification, with confirming feedback resulting in the highest confidence.
52 Errors in Eyewitness Testimony Confidence in one’s memories may be increased by postevent questioningMay make memories easier to retrieve
53 What Is Being Done?Inform witness perpetrator might not be in lineupUse “fillers” in lineup similar to suspectUse sequential presentation (not simultaneous)Improve interviewing techniquesCognitive interview