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1 Project Scheduling and Tracking CIS 375 Bruce R. Maxim UM-Dearborn.

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1 1 Project Scheduling and Tracking CIS 375 Bruce R. Maxim UM-Dearborn

2 2 What does the customer want to know? Do you understand my needs? Can you design a system to help me? How long will it take? How much will it cost?

3 3 Scheduling Principles - 1 Compartmentalization –the product and process must be decomposed into a manageable number of activities and tasks Interdependency –tasks that can be completed in parallel must be separated from those that must completed serially Time allocation –every task has start and completion dates that take the task interdependencies into account

4 4 Scheduling Principles - 2 Effort validation –project manager must ensure that on any given day there are enough staff members assigned to completed the tasks within the time estimated in the project plan Defined Responsibilities –every scheduled task needs to be assigned to a specific team member

5 5 Scheduling Principles - 3 Defined outcomes –every task in the schedule needs to have a defined outcome (usually a work product or deliverable) Defined milestones –a milestone is accomplished when one or more work products from an engineering task have passed quality review

6 6 Step 1 List the Deliverables Documents. Demonstration of function. Demonstration of subsystem. Demonstration of accuracy. Demonstration of reliability, security, or speed.

7 7 Step 2 Define the Milestones Completion of an activity or deliverable (must be measurable). Activities must have definite a start and stop. A milestone is point in time not a time period like an activity.

8 8 Step 3 Work Breakdown Structure Create the work breakdown structure Separate the project into phases composed of steps Subdivide steps into activities as needed

9 9 Project Effort Distribution Generally accepted guidelines are: 02-03 % planning 10-25 % requirements analysis 20-25 % design 15-20 % coding 30-40 % testing and debugging

10 10 Defining a Task Set Consider project type. Degree of rigor. Review rigor adaptation criteria. Determine task selector value. Consider concept development tasks.

11 11 Software Project Types - 1 Concept development –initiated to explore new business concept or new application of technology New application development –new product requested by customer Application enhancement –major modifications to function, performance, or interfaces (observable to user)

12 12 Software Project Types - 2 Application maintenance –correcting, adapting, or extending existing software (not immediately obvious to user) Reengineering –rebuilding all (or part) of a legacy system

13 13 Software Process Degree of Rigor - 1 Casual –all framework activities applied, only minimum task set required (umbrella activities minimized and documentation reduced) Structured –all framework and umbrella activities applied (SQA, SCM, documentation, and measurement tasks are streamlined)

14 14 Software Process Degree of Rigor - 2 Strict –full process and umbrella activities applied (high quality products and robust documentation produced) Quick reaction –emergency situation, process framework used, but only tasks essential to good quality are applied (back filling used to develop documentation and conduct additional reviews after product is delivered)

15 15 Rigor Adaptation Criteria Size of project Number of potential users Mission criticality Application longevity Requirement stability Ease of customer/developer communication Maturity of applicable technology Performance constraints Embedded/non- embedded characteristics Project staffing Reengineering factors

16 16 Task Selector Value Computed by scoring rigor adaptation criteria and adjusting the scores using differential weighting based on project characteristics. Once computed the task selector value can be used to select the appropriate task set (casual, structured, strict) for the project. It is OK to choose a less formal degree of rigor when the task selector value falls in the overlap area between two levels of rigor, unless project risk is high.

17 17 Concept Development Tasks -1 Concept scoping –determine overall project scope Preliminary concept planning –establishes development team's ability to undertake the proposed work Technology risk assessment –evaluates the risk associated with the technology implied by the software scope

18 18 Concept Development Tasks - 2 Proof of concept –demonstrates the feasibility of the technology in the software context Concept implementation –concept represented in a form that can be used to sell it to the customer Customer reaction to concept –solicits feedback on new technology from customer

19 19 Activity Graph Each activity has: 1.Precursor 2.Duration 3.Due date 4.End point (milestone or deliverable)

20 20 CPM Critical Path Method

21 21 ActivityPrecursorDurationESTEFTLSTLFTSlack Start-000000 A 202020 B 303474 CA527270 DA,B4377114 ED279 134 FB,C67137 0 FINISHE,F013 0 EST = earliest start time, EFT = earliest finish time. LST = latest start time, LFT = latest finish time. Slack = (LST - EST) or (LFT - EFT).

22 22 CPM Equations EST(START) always = 0, EFT(START) always = 0. LST(START) always = 0, LFT(START) always = 0. EFT(I) = EST(I) + DUR(I). EST(I) = max(EFT of all predecessors). LST(I) = LFT(I) - DUR(I). LFT(I) = min(LST of all sucessors). LFT(FINISH) = LST(FINISH) = EST(FINISH) = EFT(FINISH). Critical path is all nodes with Slack = 0.

23 23 Program Evaluation and Review Technique JAN FEB TASKEARLIEST START LATEST START 181522295121724 11/12/5****** 21/11/8** 31/91/22**** 41/91/22**** 51/232/1 *** 61/232/1 --F 71/232/17 --FFF 82/22/17 **** * = critical activity, - = non-critical, F = float or slack

24 24 Gantt Chart

25 25 Overlay Resources on Gantt Chart

26 26 Milestone Chart

27 27 Line Graph

28 28 People and Effort Adding people to a project after it is behind schedule often causes the schedule to slip further The relationship between the number of people on a project and overall productivity is not linear (e.g. 3 people do not produce 3 times the work of 1 person, if the people have to work in cooperation with one another) The main reasons for using more than 1 person on a project are to get the job done more rapidly and to improve software quality.

29 29 Earned Value Analysis Earned value is a quantitative measure of percent of project completed so far. The total hours to complete the entire project are estimated and each task is given an earned value based on its estimated percentage contribution to the total.

30 30 Error Tracking Allows comparison of current work to past projects and provides a quantitative indication of the quality of the work being conducted. The more quantitative the approach to project tracking and control, the more likely problems can be anticipated and dealt with in a proactive manner.

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