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Distinctive Features of Russian Science and Government Policy Irina Dezhina Head of Economics of Science and Innovations Division, Institute of World Economy.

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Presentation on theme: "Distinctive Features of Russian Science and Government Policy Irina Dezhina Head of Economics of Science and Innovations Division, Institute of World Economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Distinctive Features of Russian Science and Government Policy Irina Dezhina Head of Economics of Science and Innovations Division, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Head of Research Group on Science and Industrial Policy, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology

2 Contents 1. Financing, workforce and scientific results: major trends 2. Government measures to strengthen research in universities 3. Inviting foreign scholars: approaches and results 4. Institutional reform 5. Conclusions

3 Expenditures on R&D, as % of GDP (Russia-2012; other –nearest year available)

4 Expenditures on R&D Financed by Government and Business

5 Foreign Financing, % of total Expenditures on R&D in Russia

6 Changes in the Number of Researchers (thousands, headcount) 2000200520082010 2012 2012/2000 % Researchers - total426.0391.1375.8368.9 372.6 -12.5 From total: RAS institutes 61.960.854.755.152.952.9 -14.5 Universities28.330.133.238.643.0 +51.9+51.9

7 Dynamics of the Age Structure

8 Average Age of Researchers in Russia

9 Share of Publications in World Total: Top 5 Countries and Russia (WoS) Country20022012 USA32.027.13 China4.6813.7 Germany8.297.28 Japan8.845.67 France5.935.04 Russia3.092.06 Source: of-science-1998-2012.html of-science-1998-2012.html

10 Articles and Citations: BRIC Countries and USA, 2008-2012, WoS Country No. of Articles Citations per Article Russia 1353632.56 Brazil 1604433.22 India 2070863.87 China 6990444.01 USA 16641367.43

11 Share of Publications with Russian Researchers in Country Total, SCOPUS-2012 CountryShare of publications in co-authorship with Russian researchers, % Belarus30.41 Armenia30.28 Georgia30.12 Ukraine10.09 Germany2.23 France1.90 UK1.09 Japan0.76 USA0.60

12 Government Programs to Strengthen Universities Government Programs Innovational Educational Program (2006-2008) Research Universities (since 2009) 57 universities29 universities 1 billion USD 1.7 billion USD New quality of education Inclusion in the list of top-500 within 10-15 years 20% co-financing Federal Universities (since 2006) 8 NEW Universities, 0.6 billion USD Regional development “5 in top 100” Program 15 universities (since 2013) Total 1.1 billion USD for 4 years Special status to MSU and SPbSU, 1.75 billion USD for 2011-2013 Programs for Development 55 universities (since 2012)

13 Leading Universities: General Regulations New goal: 5 out of 15 have to be in top-100 leading world universities by 2020 ( Presidential Decree from 07.05.2012) System of indicators. Attention to publications and citations; foreign students (at least 15%) and professors Research and Federal Universities: low flexibility in spending budgetary financing (it is not allowed to spend money on R&D, support of graduate students; salary for technicians who operate equipment) Teaching loads have not been reduced and may be even increased

14 New Role of Universities: Government View “IVORY TOWERS” BUT ENTREPRENEURAL: - Should become centers of fundamental research - Should substitute corporate research (in-house R&D) and should be in demand from industry

15 Foreign Scholars in Russian Science Cooperative projects led by diaspora members 76% PIs - from universities; 31% - from USA; 44% - professors. Average citations per article – 7.7 Megagrants 119 labs; 1/3 of leaders – 45-60 years old; 800 publications in WoS or Scopus journals Megagrants: expert evaluation of proposals and monitoring of results (half of reviewers are foreigners)

16 Current Institutional Reforms 1. Reform of RAS: combining RAS, RAMS, and RAAS 2. 1007 former Academy institutes transferred to the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations 3. New approaches for assessing performance of research institutes (not linked to assessment of research universities) 4. Possible shutdown of institutes and cuts of personnel 5. Growing grant support: Russian Science Foundation

17 Major sectors in Russian R&D Complex (2012) Academy Higher education Business enterprise Number of organizations involved in R&D 871 (24.4%) 660 (18.5%) 1362 (38.2%) Researchers, thousand 72.3 (19.4%) 43.0 (11.5%) 192.3 (51.6%) Intramural expenditures on R&D, thousand RUR 91.2 (13.0%) 65.0 (9.3%) 408.3 (58.3%) Share in total basic research, % 63.516.710.2

18 RAS Productivity Russian Academy of Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Max Planck Society (Germany) National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS, France) Number of publications in Scopus 81,075109,72743,109117,311 Average number of publications per researcher 1.432.819.1710.11 Average number of citations per publication 2.663.811.977.42 Source: Nature 464, 1257 (2010)

19 Basic Research Expenditures, % GDP (2011)

20 Budgets of Foundations (federal financing in billion RUR) 201420152016 Russian Science Foundation 11.417.219.1 Russian Foundation for Basic Research Russian Foundation for Humanities 1.541.822.37

21 Measuring Performance of Research Institutes Interagency evaluation of performance 25 major criteria which will be grouped (by 6-7) for assessing different types of institutes 4 groups of indicators: 1)Outputs (bibliometrics, patent stats, and attracted funds) 2)Workforce development (number of graduate students and personnel who took part in various trainings) 3)Integration into the world’s community (co- authorship) 4)Resources (funding, researchers and their demographic profile, salaries) Role of qualitative indicators?

22 Conclusions Russian R&D complex is mainly government-owned and government- financed. The role of government is increasing The biggest problem is researchers – they leave, they are getting older in average, the “generation gap” is growing Positive developments: support of research in universities; inviting foreign scholars Negative: absence of strategic vision; ill- conceived decisions

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