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Intro: Carbohydrates nters/wellness/nutrition_carbohydrates/ what_are_carbohydrates_video

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Presentation on theme: "Intro: Carbohydrates nters/wellness/nutrition_carbohydrates/ what_are_carbohydrates_video"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intro: Carbohydrates nters/wellness/nutrition_carbohydrates/ what_are_carbohydrates_video nters/wellness/nutrition_carbohydrates/ what_are_carbohydrates_video

2 CARBOHYDRATES Structure and Function: Organic - carbohydrates contain the atoms carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (C H O) Each molecule contains 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, 6 oxygen atoms (C6 H12 O6) Found mainly in foods from plant sources Body’s main source of energy - 4 kcal/g

3 Types of Carbohydrates: 1)Simple Carbohydrates (Sugars) a)Monosaccharides or single sugars Glucose - AKA “blood sugar” = building block of all other sugars (essential energy source) Fructose -fruits Galactose -milk products - not found alone/part of disaccharide lactose)

4 1)Simple Carbohydrates (Sugars): Structure of Glucose

5 1)Simple Carbohydrates (Sugars): Structure of Fructose

6 b)Disaccharides - Sugars made of monosaccharides bonded together Maltose (glucose + glucose) → produced when starch breaks down Sucrose (glucose + fructose) = granulated or table sugar Lactose (glucose + galactose) = milk sugar

7 Structure of Disaccharides: Lactose

8 Health Concerns: Simple Carbohydrates Health Concerns: “Added Sugars” provide little nutritional benefit/displace nutrients in the diet Contribute to obesity: Liquid calories don’t curb our appetite for more food Excess sugars (espec. HFCS) raise the level of blood triglycerides = a risk factor for heart disease Recommendations: Limit Added Sugars  10% of total energy (calorie) intake  6.5 tsp a day (females) 9.5 tsp/day (males)


10 2 )Complex Carbohydrates Long chemical chains of glucose molecules = polysaccharides a) Glycogen: storage form of glucose in the body (liver and muscle cells) b) Starches: Storage form of glucose in plants Found in wheat, rice, potatoes, legumes, corn

11 Complex Carbohydrates: Structure of Starch

12 Complex Carbohydrates Health Benefits: “protein sparing effect” (body’s main source of energy) Weight control – provides increased satiety and delayed hunger  Risk of chronic diseases- cancer, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes Recommendation: 55% – 60% of total energy (calories)

13 Complex Carbohydrates: Fibre b)Fibre – Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums, lignins NO ENERGY ↓ – the human body does not produce digestive enzymes capable of breaking fibre into glucose (energy)

14 Dietary Fibre: Health Benefits: An important part of our diet as it assists in the elimination of waste from our body Aids in weight loss/maintenance - promotes satiety (fullness) Recommendation: 20g - 35 g/day

15 Types of Dietary Fibre: 1) Soluble Fibre - dissolves in water Found in fruits (apples, citrus), oats, barley, legumes Pectin, mucilage, gums Benefits: delayed glucose absorption (benefits diabetes)  blood cholesterol (benefits heart disease)

16 2 ) Insoluble Fibre does not dissolve in water found in wheat bran, corn bran, whole grain breads and cereals, vegetables Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin Benefits: Speeds up GI transit ( ↑ bowel regularity) Associated with reduced risk type II diabetes

17 Sugar Overload – 10 Reasons to Cut Back (Nutrition Action Jan/Feb. 2010) Sugar sweetened beverages promote obesity. Why? Liquid calories don’t curb our appetite for more food Sugar Sweetened drinks may raise the risk of heart disease. Why ? Excess sugars (espec. Glucose fructose) raise the level of blood triglycerides = risk factor for heart disease Fructose may promote overeating. Why? By blocking the leptin (appetite control) signal to your brain telling you to stop eating The Bottom Line: Most sugary foods are junk!

18 Added Sugar- How Much are you consuming? 1 can Coke/Sprite/Pepsi = approx 10 tsp added sugar 1 bottle Vitamin Water Essential = 9 tsp added sugar 1 bottle Arizona Green ice tea = 10 tsp added sugar Recommendations for Added Sugar Intake: Women: 6.5 tsp/day Men: 9.5 tsp/day

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