3 The Impact of Geography NileThe longest river in the worldIt splits into two branchesFlows north, starting in the mountains of Africa, through deserts, and empties into the Mediterranean.ProtectionUnlike Mesopotamia, Egypt’s geography makes it difficult to invadeMediterranean Sea – NorthRed Sea – EastSahara – WestAfrican mountains / Cataracts - South
4 How did the Nile affect life in ancient Egypt? Review QuestionHow did the Nile affect life in ancientEgypt?Provided the “miracle” of the Nile, which allowed farming2. Provided a natural barrier from invasions
5 Important gods were sun and land gods ReligionPolytheisticImportant gods were sun and land godsEven the same god had different names depending on the role it took on, two names for the sun god were Atum and ReOsiris and Isis (reborn)
6 Which gods were most important to the Egyptians? Review QuestionWhich gods were most important to the Egyptians?Atum, Re, Osiris, Isis (any god dealing with the land)
7 The course of Egyptian history Old KingdomKing Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 B.C.King Menes also created the first dynasty (a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family)King Menes took the title pharaoh (most common title for an Egyptian ruler)Pharaohs had unlimited power but used a bureaucracy (non elected officials)
8 The course of Egyptian history The most important government official was the vizier (steward of the whole land)Pyramids were a cultural achievement of the Old Kingdom
9 The course of Egyptian history Pyramids were not merely built for decoration, they were used as tombs for pharaohsTo prepare bodies for the afterlife, Egyptians used the process of mummification
10 Why was the mummification process so important to Egyptians? Review QuestionWhy was the mummification process soimportant to Egyptians?Because of their strong belief in the afterlife
11 The course of Egyptian history Middle KingdomBegan around 2050 B.C.Conquered Nubia and sent armies to Palestine and SyriaDrained parts of the Delta and used it for farmland.Also dug a canal to connect the Nile and the Red Sea to aid in transportation
12 The course of Egyptian history HyksosInvaded from western Asia using horse-drawn chariots and bronze weaponsNew KingdomBegan in 1567 B.C. used weapons brought by the Hyksos to overthrow them
13 The course of Egyptian history Accomplishments of the New KingdomIncreased territoryBuilt new templesHad a woman pharaohProblems in the New KingdomForced people to be monotheisticLost land to invadersEnded when invaded by the “sea people”
14 Egyptian society is shaped like a pyramid Social StructureEgyptian society is shaped like a pyramidPharaohNobles / PriestsMerchants / ArtisansScribes / Tax CollectorsPeasants (mainly farmers)
15 How was Egyptian society like a pyramid? Review QuestionHow was Egyptian society like a pyramid?The most important groups (those at the top) were the smallestgroups.
16 Daily Life in Ancient Egypt Menmasters of their housesarranged marriages for their childrenWomenwell respectededucated the childrenupperclass women even became preistesses
17 How were women treated in Egyptian society? Review QuestionHow were women treated in Egyptiansociety?Well respected, certain rights.
18 Hieratic Script (simplified version of Hieroglyphics Writing and EducationHieroglyphics (priest carvings, sacred writings, writing of early Egyptians)Hieratic Script (simplified version of Hieroglyphicswritten on papyrus, paper made from a reed that grewalong the Nile)
19 Achievements in Art and Science ArchitecturePyramids, temples, and other monumentsshow artistic ability.ArtFollowed a particular formula, it gave it adistinctive look.
20 Achievements in Art and Science MathematicsGeometry, learned to calculate area andVolume (building temples)Science365 day calendarExperts in anatomy (mummification)
21 What advances did Egyptians make in Review QuestionWhat advances did Egyptians make inmath and science? How are still used today?Geometry (area and volume) – buildings and modernarchitecture.Anatomy (modern first aid) – splints, bandages, treatfractures, wound care