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Developing a Business Plan

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1 Developing a Business Plan
Why a Business Plan is Important What Goes into a Business Plan? How to Create an Effective Business Plan Chapter 3

2 Why Businesses Fail According to the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), over 50% of small businesses fail within the first 5 years Lack of experience Insufficient capital Poor location Poor inventory management Over investment in fixed-assets Poor credit arrangements Personal use of business funds Unexpected growth Competition Low sales

3 The Business Plan Business Plan
A written document that describes all the steps necessary for opening and operating a successful business It describes your products manufacturing methods customers management suppliers competitive strategies how business will earn a profit future growth plans Besides the idea, what’s the next most important part of starting your own business?

4 The Business Plan Business plans may be internally or externally focused Internally – to educate employees on new business directions Externally – to make outsiders aware of your business; specifically investors Bank Loans Angel Investors Venture Capitalists

5 Investors Bank Loans SBA Loan Programs 7(a) Loan Program
Up to $750,000 Available to start ups with less than $7 million net worth Most require 2-3 years of financial statements and some owners equity in business 504 Loan Program Supplies funds for asset purchases (i.e. land or equipment) Up to $1,000,000 40% from a Certified Development Company (CDC) 10% equity of the borrower 7(m) Microloan Program Up to $35,000 Must enroll in technical assistance classes administered by the micro-lender intermediaries

6 Investors Angel Investors
An affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for ownership equity U.S. Angels invest a total of around $20 billion per year in around 60,000 businesses. Angels invest in around 1 out of every 10 business investment deals considered, or 10%. The average Angel Investor is 47 years old, college educated, and self employed The average angel investor has an annual income of $90,000, a net worth of $750,000, and invests $37,000 per venture. 9 out of 10 angel investments are devoted to start-ups with fewer than 20 employees, and 7 out of 10 angel investments are made locally (within 50 miles of the Angel’s home). 9 out of 10 angels provide additional support via personal loans or loan guarantees to the firms in which they invest. Angels expect a 26% average annual return at the time they invest – and expect about one-third of their investments to result in a substantial capital loss. Angels spend an average of 3.5 months conducting due diligence on each investment. The most common reasons angels reject deals are insufficient growth potential, overpriced equity, insufficient talent of the management, or lack of information about the entrepreneur or key personnel.

7 Investors Venture Capitalists
A firm that manages the pooled money of others in a professionally-managed fund Venture capitalists (VCs) invest a total of around $30 billion per year in around 4,000 businesses. VCs invest in only about 1 out of every 100 business investment deals considered, or 1%. VCs look at substantially more deals than Angel Investors. The average VC invests $7.5 million per venture and expects a 25% average annual return. Although most VC firms have a website and other ways of sending in cold call solicitations, it is best to be referred to a VC by someone who is known to the VC. VCs conduct significantly more due diligence than angel investors do, spending an average of 5 months on due diligence for each investment. Overall, VCs have more sector experience, invest in larger firms, and conduct more sector research. They meet an entrepreneur more often before investing, take more independent references on the entrepreneur, and analyze the financials more thoroughly. VCs demand a more comprehensive business plan from the entrepreneur; incur more research costs; document their investment process more; consult more people before investment; and take longer to invest.

8 Purposes of a Business Plan
explains the idea behind your business how your product or service will be produced and sold sets specific objectives and how your business will achieve them describes the experience of the people who will run the business

9 Importance of a Business Plan
makes you think about all aspects of your business may help you secure financing helps you communicate your ideas to others can serve as a tool for managing your business

10 Basic Elements of a Business Plan
The main body of a business plan should be organized into the following elements: Introduction Marketing Financial Management Operations Concluding Statement

11 Introduction A detailed description of business goals
Ownership and legal structure of the business Your skills and experience The competitive advantages of the business

12 Introduction Detailed Description
Describe how you came up with your business Outline the business goals for the Short-term Medium-term Long-term

13 Introduction Ownership and Legal Structure
sole proprietor, partnership, or corporation identify leadership team list number of shareholders

14 Introduction Skills and Experience of the Leadership Team
list all of your relevant business experience paid work volunteer work hobbies list all of the relevant business experience of your leadership team

15 Introduction Advantages Performance Quality Reliability Distribution
Price Promotion Public image or reputation

16 Marketing Products and/or services Market Industry Location

17 Marketing Products and/or services What are you providing
How is it different from your competition Unique features/benefits

18 Marketing Target Market
Market Segmentation – breaking down a group of consumers into smaller groups with shared common characteristics Demographics age, marital status, gender, ethnicity, education, income, etc. Example: women business owners b/w 25 – 40 who earn $50,000+ per year Psychographics tastes, opinions, personality traits, lifestyle habits Example: people who live in the city and like to listen to jazz Geographic Data geographic criteria—nations, states, regions, countries, cities, neighborhoods, or zip codes Example: number of people who live within 5 miles of your business

19 Marketing How is it different from your competition SWOT Analysis
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Strengths Weaknesses Innovation Fast Store Openings Strong Financials Low Employee Satisfaction US-focused Organization Small Product Mix Opportunities Threats Investment in New Markets New Store Openings Increasing Specialty Coffee Market Increasing Competition Change in Customer Perception Change in Economic Environment

20 Marketing Industry External factors affecting your business
Growth potential Economic trends Technology trends

21 Marketing Location One of the most important decisions when starting up a new business Is the facility easily accessible to your potential customers? Is the location convenient to where you live? Can you find a number of qualified employees in the area in which the facility is located? Are the lease terms and rent favorable? Is the facility consistent with the image you'd like to maintain? Is the facility located in a safe neighborhood with a low crime rate? Are neighboring businesses likely to attract customers who will also patronize your business? Are there any competitors located close to the facility? If so, can you compete with them successfully? Is parking space available and adequate? If your business expands in the future, will the facility be able to accommodate this growth?

22 Financial Management Identification of Risks
Prospective lenders and investors will want to know what risks your business faces and how you plan to deal with them.

23 Financial Management Financial Statements
pro forma financial statement a financial statement based on projected revenues and expenses Funding Request and Return on Investment borrowed money personal investment anticipated return on investment

24 Operations Daily business management Hiring and personnel procedures
Insurance Lease or rental agreements Equipment

25 Operations Harvest Strategy
the way an entrepreneur intends to extract his or her money from a business after it is operating successfully Also known as an Exit Strategy

26 Concluding Statement Summarize goals and objectives.
Emphasize your commitment to the success of your business.

27 Completing the Business Plan
Introductory Elements Cover letter Title page Table of Contents Statement of purpose Executive Summary

28 Completing the Business Plan
Cover Letter a letter that introduces and explains an accompanying document or set of documents Generally one page at most in length

29 Completing the Business Plan
Title Page Table of Contents Statement of Purpose Explanation of why you are asking for a loan and what you plan to do with the money

30 Completing the Business Plan
Executive Summary Short restatement of the report Should be well-written and clearly state your main points Often this is the only page executives read and can determine whether or not they even consider your request Should include the following information: Description of your business concept; what is unique about it Sales projections, costs, and profits Needs assessment (inventory, land, building, equipment, etc.) Capital requirements (how much you want to borrow)


32 Completing the Business Plan
Appendix Includes supporting documents that provide additional information to support the body of the report Anything potential investors would want to know before lending you money… Tax returns Personal financial statement of the owner Copy of proposed lease Copy of licenses and other legal documents Copy of resume of the owner Letters of recommendation Copy of letters of intent from suppliers Copies of any large sales contracts

33 Business Plan Outline Introductory Element Main Body
Cover Letter Title Page Table of Contents Statement of Purpose Executive Summary Main Body Introduction Marketing Financial Management Operations Concluding Statement Appendix or Supporting Documents

34 How to Create an Effective Business Plan ?
Research Most entrepreneurs spend 50 to 100 hours developing their business plans. Resources Realistic

35 Resources Small Business Administration (SBA)
an independent agency of the federal government helps Americans develop new businesses Small Business Development Centers (SBDC) a cooperative effort of the private sector, the educational community, and federal, state, and local governments provides free help for businesses that cannot afford a private consultant Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) retired executives provide free, confidential advice to entrepreneurs either in person or over the Internet business related workshops both short-term and long-term assistance is available

36 Resources Chamber of Commerce Trade Associations
provides information on local business trends Trade Associations organizations that are made up of professionals in a specific industry provide educational and networking opportunities Professional Consultants experts who will provide business assistance for a fee Financial Institutions Bankers and accountants can provide information about loans and financial statements

37 Resources Print Resources Online Resources Library Magazines
Government Documents Online Resources provide information similar to print information websites targeted to entrepreneurs and small business owners provide business plan templates

38 Mistakes in Business Planning
Avoid making the following mistakes: Unrealistic financial projections An undefined target market Poor research Ignored competition Inconsistencies in the business plan

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