Presentation on theme: "Optimal Medical Therapy with or without Coronary Artery Bypass Graft for Stable Triple Vessel Coronary Artery Disease Ray P. Aswat, M.D. Adult Cardiology."— Presentation transcript:
Optimal Medical Therapy with or without Coronary Artery Bypass Graft for Stable Triple Vessel Coronary Artery Disease Ray P. Aswat, M.D. Adult Cardiology Fellow
Background Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is recommended for patients with left main disease and the preferred revascularization strategy for patients with multi-vessel coronary disease, with depressed systolic function, Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) < 50%, and diabetes. PHA Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Coronary Artery Disease, July 2009.
Background A meta-analysis of trials comparing medical and surgical therapy in patients with stable coronary disease showed that among patients with three vessel or left main disease, there was a survival benefit after CABG in those with or without proximal Left Anterior Descending (LAD) artery disease. Aroesty, Julian; Patient information: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate 2011
Background The ACC/AHA guidelines update for coronary artery bypass graft surgery recommended that CABG is a Class I indication for three-vessel disease where the LVEF is less than 50 %. Eagle, KA, Guyton, RA, Davidoff, R, et al. ACC/AHA 2004 guideline update for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2004
Background On the other hand, medical therapy (MT) for multivessel CAD showed a lower incidence of short-term events and a reduced need for additional revascularization, compared with PCI according to the MASS II trial. Also, MT was less superior to CABG in eliminating anginal symptoms. Hueb W; Soares PR; Gersh BJ; Cesar LA; Luz PL; Puig LB; Martinez EM; Oliveira SA; Ramires JA, The Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study (MASS-II): a randomized, controlled clinical trial of three therapeutic strategies for multivessel coronary artery disease: one-year results, J Am Coll Cardiol 2004
Background COURAGE trial compared optimal medical therapy alone or in combination with PCI as an initial management strategy in patients with stable coronary artery disease including multivessel CAD. The addition of PCI to optimal medical therapy reduced angina but did not reduce long- term rates of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes Boden WE; O'Rourke RA; Teo KK; Hartigan PM; Maron DJ; Kostuk WJ; Knudtson M; Dada M; Casperson P; Harris CL; Chaitman BR; Shaw L; Gosselin G; Nawaz S; Title LM; Gau G; Blaustein AS; Booth DC; Bates ER; Spertus JA; Berman DS; Mancini GB; Weintraub WS, Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI for stable coronary disease, N Engl J Med. 2007
Background “Optimal Medical Therapy” includes medications which are strongly recommended for patients with coronary artery disease to improve prognosis, thereby reducing death and risk for myocardial infarction Libby, et al. Braunwald’s Heart Disease, A Textboook Cardiovascular Medicine, 8 th Ed, 2008
Background BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial of patients with diabetes mellitus, no significant difference in risk of mortality in the cohort of patients randomized to medical therapy plus CABG or medical therapy alone was observed. Hillis, L. David, Smith, Peter K, et al. 2011 ACCF/ AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/ American Heart Asociation Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J. Am. Coll. Cardiology. Circulation 2011
Objectives To compare the outcomes of patients with stable triple vessel coronary artery disease on optimal medical therapy with or without CABG
Methods Patients diagnosed with triple vessel disease recommended for CABG were enrolled in this study after a written consent was given. Those who underwent CABG with optimal medical therapy were analyzed among the “CABG” group and those who did not undergo CABG were analyzed under the “optimal medical therapy (OMT)” group.
Methods Outcomes included assessment of: a. CCS of angina pectoris b. Occurrence of acute coronary syndrome, cerebrovascular events, congestive heart failure c. All cause mortality
Inclusion Criteria: Patients of the Philippine Heart Center who have significant three vessel coronary artery disease and were recommended for revascularization Age of > 18 years old Consents to cooperate with the study
Exclusion Criteria Allergies/ contraindications to medications included among the optimal medical therapy medications Unstable angina and symptoms refractory to maximal oral and intravenous medical therapy (persistent CCS class IV) Post-MI course complicated by persistent rest angina, shock, and persistent CHF for which the need or likelihood of urgent myocardial revascularization is high
Exclusion Criteria Cardiogenic shock Pulmonary edema or heart failure unresponsive to standard medical therapy Concomitant valvular heart disease likely to require surgery or affect prognosis during follow-up Congenital or primary cardiac muscle disease likely to affect prognosis during follow-up
Exclusion Criteria Resuscitated out-of-hospital sudden death or symptomatic sustained or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia Significant systemic hypertension (BP >200/100 mm Hg) unresponsive to medical therapy Severe noncardiovascular comorbidity limiting survival
Sample Size: The sample size computed was n > 35 per group or a total of >70 patients based on a 95% confidence level and power of 80% to detect significance at an assumed difference in rates of relief from angina between surgery (CABG) and medical management of 36%.
Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of patients with stable triple vessel coronary artery disease according to therapeutic intervention (PHC, 2011)
Table 2. Medications at baseline and at the end of study of patients with stable triple vessel coronary artery disease according to therapeutic intervention (PHC, 2011)
Table 3. Modifiable risk factors at baseline and at the end of study of patients with stable triple vessel coronary artery disease according to therapeutic intervention (PHC, 2011)
Table 3. Modifiable risk factors at baseline and at the end of study continued...
Table 4. Clinical outcomes of patients with stable triple vessel coronary artery disease according to therapeutic intervention (PHC, 2011)
Conclusion There is no significant difference in the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, stroke, all cause mortality and grade of angina among patients with three vessel coronary artery disease, on optimal medical therapy who underwent CABG compared with those on optimal medical therapy alone.
Limitations and Recommendation Most of the patients were males, thus women were underrepresented. This study was done in a single center only and may not represent adequately the general population. A randomized, controlled trial with a larger sample size and longer follow-up would surely provide a more robust conclusion and is thus recommended.