Presentation on theme: "There are five types of chemical reactions you need to know: 1.Synthesis reactions 2.Decomposition reactions 3.Single displacement reactions 4.Double."— Presentation transcript:
There are five types of chemical reactions you need to know: 1.Synthesis reactions 2.Decomposition reactions 3.Single displacement reactions 4.Double displacement reactions 5.Combustion reactions
By the end of this lesson you should be able to: Classify the type of reaction Predict the product(s) of the reaction Balance the final equation including state symbols
Some steps for doing reactions 1. Identify the type of reaction 2. Predict the product(s) using the type of reaction as a model 3. Balance it Don’t forget about the diatomic elements! (Br I N Cl H O F) For example, Oxygen is O 2 which is a compound
Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generally elements) combine and form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination or addition reactions.) reactant + reactant 1 product Basically: A + B AB Example: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Example: C + O 2 CO 2
Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations. Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas Na (s) + Cl 2(g) Mg (s) + F 2(g) Al (s) + F 2(g) Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas NaCl (s) 2 2 MgF 2(s) AlF 3(s) 2 2 3
Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds 1 Reactant Product + Product In general: AB A + B Example: 2 H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2
Carbonates and chlorates are special case decomposition reactions that do not go to the elements. Carbonates (CO 3 2- ) decompose to carbon dioxide and a metal oxide Example: CaCO 3 CO 2 + CaO Chlorates (ClO 3 - ) decompose to oxygen gas and a metal chloride Example: 2 Al(ClO 3 ) 3 2 AlCl 3 + 9 O 2 There are other special cases, but we will not explore those in this year
Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations: Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes PbO 2(s) Aluminum nitride decomposes AlN (s)
Identify the type of reaction for each of the following synthesis or decomposition reactions, and write the balanced equation: N 2(g) + O 2(g) BaCO 3(s) Co (s) + S (s) NH 3(g) + H 2 CO 3(aq) NI 3(s) (make Co be +3) Nitrogen monoxide
Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound. A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). element + compound element + compound A + BC AC + B (if A is a metal) OR A + BC BA + C (if A is a nonmetal) (remember the cation always goes first!) When H 2 0 splits into ions, it splits into H + and OH -
To determine if a single replacement reaction will take place we must look at the reactivity of the elements involved. Elements higher on the table will replace elements lower on the table. Elements lower will NOT replace elements higher.
Write and balance the following single replacement reaction equation: Zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid Zn(s) + HCl(aq) Note: Zinc replaces the hydrogen ion in the reaction 2 ZnCl 2 + H 2(g)
Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas NaCl (s) + F 2(g) Note that fluorine replaces chlorine in the compound NaF (s) + Cl 2(g) 2 2 Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate Al (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Al(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + Cu (s) 2 32 3
Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal in a compound Compound + compound compound+ compound AB + CD AD + CB
Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together Example: AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (s) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq) Another example: K 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq) 2 KNO 3(aq) + BaSO 4(s)
To determine if products are soluble in water (aq) or insoluble (form a solid precipitate) we use a solubility table.
Predict the products. Balance the equation 1. HCl (aq) + AgNO 3(aq) 2. CaCl 2(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq) 3. Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + BaCl 2(aq) 4. FeCl 3(aq) + NaOH (aq) 5. H 2 SO 4(aq) + NaOH (aq) 6. KOH (aq) + CuSO 4(aq)
Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the “fire triangle”: 1.A Fuel (hydrocarbon) 2.Oxygen 3.Something to ignite the reaction (spark)
In general: C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some by- products like carbon monoxide) Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C 8 H 18 )
Edgar Allen Poe’s drooping eyes and mouth are potential signs of CO poisoning.
Example C 5 H 12 (l) + 8 O 2(g) 5 CO 2(g) + 6 H 2 O (l) Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction: C 10 H 22 (l) + O 2 (g)
State the type of reaction, predict the products, and balance the following reactions: 1. BaCl 2 + H 2 SO 4 2. C 6 H 12 + O 2 3. Zn + CuSO 4 4. Cs + Br 2 5. FeCO 3
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