1) Religion & culture Some religions promote large families. Also some cultures a big family is a sign of status. 2) Economic value of children Some countries schooling not compulsory & children work in homes. Can work from 3yrs old. No state pensions so rely on children for financial security in old age. 3) Age Structure Raised when there is a high proportion of people in the reproductive age (e.g. migrants)
Factors affecting Fertility (birth rates) cont. 4) Education about Contraception Awareness of birth control and benefits of fewer children 5) Access to Contraception Now many countries providing family planning services. Nigeria can be 3 hours to nearest clinic 6) Status of women Some societies see a woman's duty to bear children and are considered worthless until they fulfil their role!
Factors affecting Fertility (birth rates) cont. 7) Education of women In MEDC’s women who are educated tend to pursue a career first and a family life second. 8) Political policies Government can introduce pro natalist policies to try to increase the population.
1) Sanitation Polluted water can transmit diseases (e.g. cholera or typhoid). LEDC’s some areas lack access to fresh water supplies, have to use river 2) Climate Slight increase in temperature has increased worlds agricultural output, therefore reducing the risk of famine and bad harvests. 3) Communications / Infrastructure Means better movement of food, easier access to urban services from rural areas (e.g. hospital)
Factors affecting mortality (death rates) 4) Age structure An ageing population or greying population raises the mortality levels in a country. 5) Diet & nutrition Improved diet has helped the life expectancy to rise in a number of countries, e.g. Mediterranean countries and fish / oil diet. 6) Economic growth Improvements in the economy, when coupled with good distribution of health care, education and food have resulted in reductions in mortality.
Factors affecting mortality (death rates) 7) Medical advances India practiced inoculation against smallpox from 1920 and the death rate fell. Number of hospitals worldwide has increase since end of WW2.
Task; For all 7 factors affecting fertility and mortality, construct a pyramid ranked in order of importance. So you may want to have 1 factor as the most important, 2 as the next most important, 3 as the next… and so on; Factors affecting fertility