2 Review of lecture 13 Generativism is a rule governed creativity. We produce utterances with a certain grammatical structure.Generativism different from Bloomfieldian and Post-Bloomfieldian structuralism.They emphasized on the structural diversityGenerativists interested in similarities in languages
3 Review of Lecture 13Human language faculty is innate and species –specificPerformance – language behaviour determined not only by competence but also other factorsCompetence-performance distinction at the heart of genertivismThe distinction similar to langue-paroleIdentifiable difference on the basis of syntax
4 Generative GrammarGenerate doesn’t relate to any process of sentence production in real timeA generative grammar is a specification of the grammatical structure of the sentences it generatesGenerative grammar allows for the existence of many different kinds of generative grammar.
5 Generative grammarSome kinds of generative grammar – more powerful than othersThey can generate all the formal languages which other less powerful grammars can generate and others that less powerful grammars can’tThree types : Finite state grammar, Phrase structure grammar & transformational grammar (the most powerful)
6 Generative grammarGrammar of a particular language is a system of rules & principles that link sounds and meaningHere he is taking the native speaker’s ability to perform another kind of interpretation , by which phonetic representations are converted into sound and the semantic into meaning.
7 Generative grammarThe missing links are supplied by general theory of linguistics – called ‘universal grammar’ by ChomskyChomsky believes that language particular grammars are generative devices whose role is to relate semantic representations and phonetic representations
8 Generative grammarThey operate with the same kind of semantic and phonetic primes; (cognitive correlate)This helps in interpreting native speaker’s ability and knowledge of universal grammar.Chomsky thinks that human beings are endowed with a number of special faculties (mind)
9 Generative grammarThe faculties play an important role in our acquisition of knowledge and enable us to act as free agentsWe are then free from the interference of external stimuli in the environment.In this aspect he is opposite to Bloomfield and near to Jacobson.
10 Generative grammarChomsky says that there are certain phonological, syntactic and semantic units that are universalThey are not necessarily present in all languages but they can be defined independent of their occurance in any particular language.
11 Generative grammarThey can also be identified when they occur in particular languagesExample: It is held that there is a fixed set of up to twenty features of phonology.The feature of voicing that distinguishes /p/ from /b/, /t/ from /d/ in pronunciation of the English words pin and bin or ten and den.
12 Generative grammarAnother example: the feature of nasality that distinguishes /b/ from /m/ or /d/ from /n/ in bad and mad or pad and panNot all of them present in phonemes of all languages but from their various variations (possible combinations) every language will make its own selection
13 Generative grammarSimilarly at syntactic level, syntactic categories such as ‘noun’, ‘verb’, or ‘past tense’ or such components of meaning of words as ‘male’ or physical object belong to fixed set of elements.In terms of this it is possible to describe the syntactic or semantic structure of all languages
14 Generative grammarThese phonological, syntactic and semantic elements are called ‘Substantive universals’Chomsky believes formal universals determine the form of the rules and the manner of their operation in the grammars of particular languagesTransformations which relate various sentences and constructions are structure dependent
15 Generative grammarThey are structure dependent because they apply to strings of words through organization of these words into phrases.Language should not make structure independent operations in order to relate one sentence type to anotherAhmad was here yesterday? (declarative)Was Ahmad here yesterday? (interrogative)
16 Generative grammar Bloomfieldians nearer to transformation grammar. They say, “Every language is a law unto itself”Chomsky says that the grammatical similarities between widely separated and historically unrelated languages are as important as their differences.
17 Generative grammarRecent syntactical analysis of a number of languages shows that similarities are deeper and differences are superficialAll languages are similar in their deep structure than they are in their surface structure.Specific conditions govern the operation of grammatical rules in all languages.
18 Generative grammarBy means of these conditions rules can be determined and formalizedResultsAll human languages are similar in structure.All human languages make reference to the properties and objects of the physical world which is perceived in the same way physiologically and psychologically.
19 Generative grammar All languages operate in culture. Language fulfills a similar range of functions.It refers to Chomskyan view, ‘ human beings are genetically endowed with a highly specific language faculty.This faculty determines universal features as structural dependency.
20 Generative grammarAll children regardless of race and parentage are born with the same ability for learning languagesIn normal circumstances children will grow up as native speakers of the language, which they hear around them. Chomsky states, “ A child learns those utterances which he has never heard”
21 Generative grammarThe child is born with a knowledge of the highly restrictive principles of universal grammar.
22 SummaryGenerative grammar is set of rules which, operating upon a finite vocabulary of units , generates a set of (finite or infinite) strings, which is well formed in the language that is characterized by the grammar.The word ‘generate’ does not relate to any process of sentence production
23 SummaryA generative grammar is the specification of the grammatical structure of the sentences that it generates.Grammar of a particular language is a system of rules & principles that link sounds and meaninghuman beings are endowed with a number of special faculties (mind)
24 SummaryChomsky says that there are certain phonological, syntactic and semantic units that are universal.Human beings are independent of any external stimuliAll human languages are similar in structure.All human languages make reference to the properties and objects of the physical world
25 Summarygrammatical similarities between widely separated and historically unrelated languages are as important as their differences.