Presentation on theme: "Everyone has a writing process. What is yours?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Everyone has a writing process. What is yours? Rationale: When students spend time thinking about the writing process, they will be able to plan their writing strategies more effectively.Activity: The facilitator may ask students about their own writing processes and invite them to share with the group. While students may follow a “process” for writing, they may not be able to identify all of the steps they go through to write a paper.
2 Why do you need a writing process? It can help writers to organize their thoughts.It can help writers to avoid frustration and procrastination.It can help writers to use their time productively and efficiently.Rationale: Though students engage in a writing process, they may not be conscious of the steps it entails. Some students who have trouble organizing their thoughts struggle because they do not follow a consistent writing process or they skip steps within the process. This slide presents some important reasons to identify the steps in the writing process. By thinking about the writing process, students may be able to make the process more effective and efficient for themselves.Activity: The facilitator may choose to invite participation by asking students why they need a writing process.Each reason is activated with a mouse click.
3 Writing process Prewriting Writing Revising and editing Rationale: This slide previews the six steps of the writing process. Each element forms a part of a successful writing experience.Key Concept: The facilitator may explain that the writing process is not necessarily sequential--a linear path from invention to proofreading. Writers may generate a topic, collect some information, organize their notes, go back and collect more information, invent subtopics for their work, go back to organization, etc. The writing process is recursive--it often requires going back and forth between steps to create the strongest work possible. Knowing these steps and strategies, however, can be a great help to writers who struggle with their work.
4 Prewriting stage Generate the ideas Brain storming Clustering Planning and organizingMake an outline
5 Generating ideas Brainstorming: Getting your ideas on paper so you can list down the widest range of information possibleKey Concept: The first step in the writing process is invention--developing a topic. Students often make the mistake of latching onto the first idea that comes their way. However, by doing some invention exercises, students can give themselves some options for their writing assignments and allow themselves to consider the ideas that are the most manageable, appropriate to the assignment, and, above all, interesting to the writer. If the writer is bored with the topic, it will show through in the final product.
6 Brainstorming: coming up with ideas that interest you Listing:ComputersTypesHistoryModelsPartsHardware, softwareAdvantagesdisadvantagesKey Concept: Brainstorming is a method for coming up with ideas for a project. The key to brainstorming is to write down everything that pops into your head--the idea you are the least certain about may be the one you use for your paper! Brainstorming is a way writers can provide themselves with topic options.One brainstorming technique is called listing. This strategy involves a simple list of every idea that pops into the writer’s mind. From this list, writers might choose to narrow down their topics or branch into a related topic. The important thing is that all of these ideas are down on paper so they won’t be forgotten and potentially useful ideas are not lost in the process.Activity: To involve students, the facilitator might ask students the definitions of “brainstorming” and “listing.” Ask students about the writing situations in which they have found listing to be a useful technique. These experiences may inspire other students to give it a try.Click the mouse after “Listing:” to reveal the brainstormed list.Brainstorming
7 Clustering: mapping out ideas NewAdvertisementBrandsBuyingUsedAutomotiveindustryCarstravelKey Concept: Clustering is another terrific brainstorming idea. Visual learners may find this technique more effective than listing because of the manner in which ideas are spatially arranged. To start, write the word “ME” in the center of your paper and draw a circle around it. Then branch out from the center circle with any ideas that interest you. If more ideas pop into your head, draw branches stemming from your outer circle. Again, the key is to write down as many ideas as possible. Students may find that two smaller branched ideas may work together well to form one solid topic. Or, students may find that their branch circles form supporting ideas or arguments for their main ideas.It is important not only to find a topic, but to find an angle about that topic that can be argued within an essay. Once students find an idea they like, they might form a new cluster by putting their main idea in the center, and then build supporting claims in branched circles.Activity: If the class is about to work on a new writing assignment, it might be a good idea to pause here and have them do some brainstorming by creating their own lists or clusters. The facilitator might ask students to share the results of their lists or come around the room and hold up examples of good clusters.Click the mouse after the “ME” circle to see additional branches.safetyHobbyHistory ofcarsEngineeringEngine
8 Organizing: putting information in an outline I. IntroductionA. Background info.B. Thesis statementII. BodyS.P.1 – topic sentenceS.P.2 – topic sentenceS.P.3 – topic sentenceIII. ConclusionA. Reemphasize mainideaI.II.III.OutlineKey Concepts: After writers collect information pertaining to their topics, a useful next step is to organize it--decide where to place information in the argument, as well as which information to omit. One easy way to do this is outlining. Argumentative and narrative papers generally have three main sections. The introduction is used to grab the readers’ attention and introduce the main idea or claim, often in the form of a thesis statement. The body consists of several supporting paragraphs that help to elaborate upon the main claim. Finally, the conclusion serves to wrap up the argument and reemphasize the writer’s main ideas. After gathering information in the collection stage, the writer should think about where each piece of information belongs in the course of an argument. By taking time to organize and plan the paper, writers save time and frustration in the drafting stage; they find that they can follow the pattern they have established for themselves in their outlines.
9 Writing stage Clear communication of ideas Organization of paper Paragraph structureStrong introduction and conclusionRationale: Many students struggle with drafting because they make it the second component of their writing process--right after coming up with a topic-- instead of the fourth, after collecting and organizing. Students also struggle because they do not give themselves enough time to complete the drafting process.Key Concepts: With a little bit of pre-planning and organization, the drafting stage can be both a rewarding and efficient experience. First of all, students can avoid the dreaded procrastination by beginning their projects early. A comfortable place to write--whether with a keyboard or a pencil--also aids concentration. Avoiding distractions, such as television, noisy friends, or computer solitaire, will keep writers focused on their projects. Finally, writers should take breaks, preferably leaving off at a place where they know what comes next. This will make it easier to pick up again after the break. Sometimes completing a draft and coming back to it the next day helps students to look at their work with a fresh pair of eyes and a rejuvenated attitude.Writers should not feel compelled to write chronologically. Sometimes the conclusion can be an easier place to begin than with the thesis statement. With each writing assignment, students will be able to find a personal system that works best for them.Activity: The facilitator may ask students to share tips that they have learned about their own successful drafting habits.
10 Revising and editing Improving your essay Proofreading do it yourself partner feedbackFinal draft
11 Proofreading Review later-order concerns: Spelling Punctuation Sentence structureDocumentation styleKey Concepts: After improving the quality of the content in the revising stage, writers then need to take care of mechanics, including corrections of spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and documentation style.For more information on sentence structure and punctuation, see “Sentence Clarity and Combining” and “Conquering the Comma,” included on this CD-ROM. For presentations on documentation styles, see “Cross-referencing: Using MLA Format” and “Documenting Sources: Using MLA Format,” also on this CD-ROM.
12 Where can you go for additional help with assignments for any class? Writing centerSKey Concept: If your students are struggling with developing a writing process, they can find help at the Purdue University Writing Lab. By making a half-hour appointment with a tutor, students can receive help with any area of the writing process, from invention to proofreading.Click mouse after the title question.