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Latin America Chapter 9: From the Andes to the Amazon

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1 Latin America Chapter 9: From the Andes to the Amazon
Physical Geography Chapter 10: A Blending of Cultures Human Geography Chapter 11: Today’s Issues Latin America’s Pressing Events

2 Chapter 9: From the Andes to the Amazon
Section 1: Landforms and Resources

3 General Background Info
Latin America stretches for about 7,000 miles. Covers part of North America. All of Central and South America. In between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The mountains of Latin America have helped define the region.

4 The Andes Mountains Chain of mountains through the western portion of North, Central, and South America. Rockies in the United States Volcanoes present. Serve as a barrier to movement. Where do people settle? Home to some of the most important historical cultures.


6 Latin American Highlands
Extremely hilly regions of countries are called Highlands. Two main highlands in Latin America are both in South America: Guiana Highlands – Northeast Latin America. Brazilian Highlands – East coast of Brazil.

7 Mountains, Highlands, & Plains

8 Latin American Plains Plains offer rich soil and grasses suitable for farming and livestock grazing. Llanos – situated in Colombia and Venezuela. Grassy and treeless. Similar to the plains in the United States Amazon Basin – interior of Brazil. Cerrado – savannas with flat terrain and moderate rainfall. Underdeveloped land. Pampas – grasslands where soil is extremely rich. Argentina and Uruguay.

9 Major River Systems Orinoco River – winds through Northern Venezuela.
1500 Miles Makes up part of the Venezuela-Colombia Border Amazon River – Starts in Andes and flows miles to empty in the Atlantic. Fed by tributaries Carries more water to the ocean than any other river. Paraná River – Starts in highlands of Southern Brazil. Flows the Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina Empties at an area known as the Rio de la Plata


11 The Islands Inhabited and uninhabited islands in Latin America are broken up into 3 groups: The Bahamas-100’s of islands off coast of Florida and Cuba. The Greater Antilles- larger islands of the Caribbean (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and PR) The Lesser Antilles- Southeast of PR. Divided into Wayward and Leeward Islands.


13 Resources Mineral and Energy Resources are the two most important natural resources found in Latin America. Tin, Lead, and Nickel most prominent Mineral Resources. Mined and then exported elsewhere. Oil, coal, natural gas, and Uranium are all mined in Latin America.

14 Maps Assignment Counts as a Quiz Grade!
You will need to complete 4 maps of Latin America Political Map Climate Region Map Physical Landforms Map Environments Map All maps must be hand-drawn

15 Chapter 9:From the Andes to the Amazon
Section 2: Climate and Vegetation

16 Varied Climates and Vegetation
Rain forests, deserts, savannas and other areas are all prominently found in Latin Am. Over 7000 miles there is great variation. Deserts scrubs and rain forests and everything in between for vegetation. Things affecting climate and vegetation: Distance/span Changes in elevation Ocean currents from Atlantic and Pacific

17 Vegetation Regions of Latin America

18 Tropical Climate Zones
Tropical Wet Tropical Wet & Dry Rain forests – dense forests made up of different species of trees. Unique Ecosystems. Amazon- 2 million sq. miles. 2500 different species in the Amazon alone. Primarily in South America. Savannas prominent. Seasonal rains. Mainly Brazil, Colombia, & Argentina.

19 Dry Climate Zones Semiarid Desert Generally dry – some rain.
Vast, grass covered plains. Some desert shrubs grow. Mexico, Brazil, Uruguay, & Argentina. North Mexico and part of Peru. Atacama desert in Northern Chile. Patagonia has a desert. Mainly Brazil, Colombia, & Argentina.

20 Mid-Latitude Climate Zones
Humid Subtropical Mediterranean Hot humid summers, rainy winters. Varied Vegetation Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina Dry summers, moist winters. Part of Chile Low shrubs and small trees.

21 Mid-Latitude Climate Zones
Marine West Coast Highlands Cool rainy winters, mild rainy summers. Chile and Argentina. Forest is typically the vegetation you find here. Moderate to cold in temperature Mountains of Mexico and the Andes Smallest of any region in Latin America.

22 How does Elevation effect South American Economies and habitation?

23 Chapter 9: From the Andes to the Amazon
Section 3: Human-Environment Interaction

24 Reshaping by Agriculture
Reshaping the land by agriculture has been practiced in Latin America for centuries. The two main types of agriculture reshaping are: Slash-and-Burn: cut trees and shrubs. Burn the trees and shrubs. Use the ash as fertilizer. What are the potential drawback to this? Terraced Farming: used to grow crops on hillsides. Cut step-like ridges into the side of the mountain. Reduces soil erosion

25 Reshaping by Agriculture

26 Urbanization Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela are the most urbanized countries in Latin America. 90% of people live in cities. Urbanization – What is it? Why does it happen? Push Factors  poor medical care, education, jobs and land usage Pull Factors  better medical care, education, and jobs

27 Urbanization

28 What are the problems with rapidly growing cities?
Unemployment and Crime increase! Social problems Unemployment Environmental problems Infrastructure issues

29 Tourism: Good or Bad? Good Bad Spending money and creating jobs
New businesses Port Cities Jobs jobs jobs! Reduces the income gap Bad Rich-poor gap increases Indigenous poeples Outside money changes the economic landscape

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