Presentation on theme: "BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION Brittany Corey."— Presentation transcript:
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION Brittany Corey
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the manipulation of genetic material to modify organisms for specific purposes. Techniques: tissue and cell culture, somaclonal variation, recombinant DNA, protoplast fusion
Tissue and Cell Culture Cells from very small pieces of plants typically sourced from embryos, seeds, stems, leaves, shoot tips, root tips, calluses, single cells, and pollen grains are proliferated in a sterile environment. Plants can then be transformed to contain desired genes.
Somaclonal Variation Cell cultures are screened for desirable traits and then regenerated into whole plants.
RecombinantRecombinant DNA Transferring genetic traits from one organism to another at the molecular level to form new plants with desired characteristics.
Protoplast Fusion Fusing cells from different types of plants or lines of the same plant to form new combinations. The cell barrier is removed by enzymes enabling the fusion to occur. Allows sexually incompatible species to produce hybrids
Micro-injection DNA is directly injected into the nucleus of the fertilized egg and matures into a transformed offspring. More precise than protoplast fusion A “gene gun” pierces the cell wall and plant membrane with DNA. Plants can also be fertilized with pollen that has absorbed foreign DNA fragments.
The Controversy For GMO For GMO Against GMO Against GMO Pros GMOs are more efficient and cost effective means of crop production because the crop yield is increased and can be bred faster in one single generation. It can take many generations for natural crops to yield the desired product. GMO crops can be bred to be resistant to negative environmental outcomes like drought or cold through gene manipulation which will help farmers grow crops in inhospitable places. GMOs can protect the health of farmers and the environment by eliminating the need of pesticides and herbicides by growing crops that contain a pesticide or herbicide gene known as BT. This in turn could contribute to better air and water quality. Food products can taste better and be of better quality through the use of GMOs. The positive characteristics of fruits and vegetables can be amplified to the consumers liking so that for example, corn can be bigger and sweeter. GMO crops can also be bred to have a higher nutritional value. GMOs can help end world poverty through the ability to breed crops in an inexpensive and large yielding way while increasing nutrition to aid malnourished individuals.
The Controversy Cons: GMOs create an increased risk of food allergies. Unknowingly, people are now consuming products that contain proteins that they have never consumed before including animal products that have been given GMO feed. Potential harmful and life threatening side effects could occur in the future. The long term implications of GMOs are unknown due to the fact that they have not been around long enough to test. Mutant bacteria and pests can evolve through the use of GMOs. By creating GMOs with bacteria or pest resistant genes like BT, these bacteria or pests can become stronger and more resistant to the GMO. This will cause the crops to become ineffective as pesticides. Herbicide resistant plants cause herbicide resistant weeds. Cross- pollination is inevitable with crops and it is possible for weeds to be contaminated in the process. Herbicide resistant weeds create the continued need for chemical herbicides like RoundUp which has harmful health and environmental effects. GMOs are harmful to other organisms. The pollen from BT crops does not discriminate with pest control; the Monarch butterfly has also experienced high mortality rates when it has inadvertently come into contact with the GMO.