2 Today… Guideline for Writing Clear Sentence Guideline for writing Clear ParagraphGuideline for Revising for ClarityGuidelines for Organizing Clearly
3 Guideline for Writing Clear Sentence Use Normal Word OrderWrite Sentences of 12 to 25 WordsUse Active VoiceUse Parallel StructurePut Main Idea First
4 1- Use Normal Word OrderThe normal word order in English is subject-verb-object.That order usually produce the clearest, most concise sentences.Clear:Patients write memos to doctors.Wordy:Memos to doctors are kinds of writing done by patients.
5 Write Sentences of 12 to 25 Words An easy-to-read sentence is 12 to 25 words long.Shorter or longer sentences are weaker because they become too simple or complicated.
6 Use Active VoiceThe active voice is more direct than the passive voice.Active Voice:Aslam started his business.Passive Voice:Business was started by Aslam.
7 Use Parallel Structure Using parallel structure means using similar structure for similar elements.Faulty:Management guarantees that the old system will be replaced and to consider the new proposal.Parallel:Management guarantees that the old system will be replaced and to consider the new proposal will be considered.
8 Put Main Idea FirstPlace the sentence’s main idea -its subject- first.When you do so you provide the context to what follows.
9 2- Guideline for writing Clear Paragraph Put the Topic Sentence FirstStructure Paragraphs Coherently
10 Put the Topic Sentence First In technical writing, almost all paragraphs begin with a topic sentence, followed by several sentences that explain the central idea.Researchers have discovered that readers comprehend a paragraph more quickly if the general or topic idea is placed first. (Slater)This structure, called deductive, gives your paragraphs the direct, straightforward style preferred by most report readers.
11 Structure Paragraphs Coherently In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea, but there is more to coherence than this.If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps.
12 3- Guideline for Revising for Clarity Avoid String of Choppy SentencesAvoid WordinessAvoid Redundant PhrasesAvoid Abstract and General TermsUse There Are SparinglyAvoid NominalizationsAvoid Noun ClustersUse You Correctly
13 4- Guidelines for Organizing Clearly Use Context-Setting IntroductionsPlace Important Material FirstUse Preview ListsUse Repetition and SequencingUse Structural Parallelism
14 Use Context-Setting Introductions Your introduction should supply an overall framework so that the reader can grasp the later details that explain and fill it.You can use an introduction to orient readers to the context of the document in one of three ways:To define terms,To tell why you are writing, andTo tell the document’s purpose.
15 Place Important Material First The beginning of a section or paragraph is an emphatic spot.Placing important material first emphasizes its importance.This strategy orients readers quickly and give them a context so that they know what to look for as they read further.
16 Use Preview ListsPreview lists contain the key words to be in the document.You can use lists in any writing situations to indicate organizations.
17 Use Repetition and Sequencing Repetition means restarting key subject words or phrases from the preview list.Sequencing means placing the key words in the same order in the text as in the list.
18 Use Structural Parallelism Structural parallelism means that each section of a document has the same organization.