Presentation on theme: "Grammar in Context 2 Chapter 4 Subjects, Objects, Possessive Forms, Reflexive Pronouns Parts of Speech Terms."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar in Context 2 Chapter 4 Subjects, Objects, Possessive Forms, Reflexive Pronouns Parts of Speech Terms
Parts of Speech Subject – The subject is the part of the sentence or clause that explains (a) what the sentence/clause is about, or (b) who or what performs the action. Verb – describe the action or indicates the state of being. Object – the who or what that receives the action of the verb Pronoun – a word that takes the place of a noun or noun phrase.
Possessive Nouns (spelling rules) Singular = noun + ‘s-s Plural = noun + s’Irregular Plural = noun + ‘s The mom’s job The cat’s toy The school’s library The parents’ car The girls’ bedroom The guests’ towels The women’s dresses The people’s tickets The children’s toys Names that end in “s” add ‘s or ‘ Possessive for people & living things Non-living things use “of” The ____ of _____. Don’t use articles with possessives. Charles’ or Charles’s My father’s laptopThe name of the town is ….. X My mother’s the bag My mother’s bag (grammar rules)
Possessive Adjectives We use possessive adjectives to show who owns the item (noun) Subject PronounPossessive AdjectiveExample IMyI like my new car. YouYourYou put on your pretty dress. HeHisHe is busy riding his fast motorcycle. SheHerShe is looking for her pearl necklace. ItItsThe store is celebrating its 3 rd year. WeOurWe are waiting for our son’s girlfriend. TheyTheirThe Wilsons are waiting for their boys.
Possessive Adjectives -- Simple Mistakes Sounding like Pronoun & “to be” Homonym (sound alike) errors He’s and his sound alike – be careful. He’s = he is, his = the man’s ….. It’s and its sound the same but are very different. It’s = it is and many Canadians often make the mistake and try to use it as a possessive adjective but it isn’t the possessive. “Its” is the possessive showing ownership. They’re and their. They’re = they are. Their shows who owns it. You’re and your. You’re = you are. Your shows who owns it.
More Rules – Possessive Adjectives Don’t use an article “the” with possessives – My the cat’s toy is lost.My cat’s toy is lost. – The my sister’s friend is nice. My sister’s friend is nice. You can use several possessive nouns together to show exact ownership. – My boss’ daughter’s new car is parked outside. – John’s mother’s second husband is quite nice.
Direct and Indirect Objects A noun is a person, place or thing. A subject is the doer of the action (usually the noun at the beginning of the sentence before the verb). The direct object receives the action of the verb. The direct object is a noun and often comes after the verb. The indirect object tells for whom the action is done and who receives the action. The indirect object is the noun that comes before the direct object in the sentence.
Nouns – Parts of Speech (Subject, Indirect Object, Direct Object) John lent me his new car. Mrs. Sampson is busy writing Jason a late slip.
The Verbs -- Tell & Say These two verbs have the same meaning but are used very differently. We “say” something (subject verb direct object) – Harold said the answer. We “tell” someone something (subject verb indirect object direct object) – Harold told his teacher the answer.
Tell We use tell with an infinitive verb. – Harold told his friends to wait for the bus. Some idiom expressions for “tell” that don’t need an indirect object tell the truth tell a lie tell a story tell a secret tell time tell about something
Question Words – Who, Whom, When, Why, What, Which, How Wh questions usually have the auxiliary verb do, does, did. But when we ask about the subject of the sentence you don’t use an auxiliary verb. Who throws the rice? (The guests throw the rice) Why did the guests give money? (The guests give the couple money to help them start their new life) How many guests gave money? (Most guests gave money) When do they try to catch the bouquet? (The unmarried women try to catch the bouquet at the end of the dinner) Which women try to catch the bouquet? (the unmarried women try to catch the bouquet) When does the bride throw the bouquet? (the bride throws the bouquet at the end of the dinner)
Who & Whom (see text page 91 – 92 for full details) In spoken conversation many Canadians use “who” when they mean “who” and when they mean “whom” In Canada for formal language to show respect and when writing a formal essay it is still best to use “whom” correctly. Whom points to the person that receives the action – Whom does the groom kiss? He kisses the bride.
Reflexive Pronouns Myself, yourself (singular), himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves (plural), themselves Reflexive pronouns can be direct or indirect objects Idiom – “all by …self” means to do something alone – I did it all by myself, he did it all by himself. Idiom – help yourself (you may start) Idiom – make yourself at home (feel like my home is your home, don’t wait for me, just do what you need e.g. open a cupboard in the kitchen to get a glass for a drink of water— don’t wait to ask me to get a glass) Use reflexive pronouns to add emphasis after the noun it refers to – Even Mr. Jones himself doesn’t know the answer to that question.
Grammar Exercises Exercise 1, answers only Exercise 2, answers only Exercise 3, #1 – 7 write the full sentence Exercise 4, #1 – 3 Exercise 5 – 12 answers only Exercise 15, all Exercise 16, #1 – 4 Exercise 17 & 18 answers only Exercise 20 & 21 answers only