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The adolescent brain under stress

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Presentation on theme: "The adolescent brain under stress"— Presentation transcript:

1 The adolescent brain under stress
Michael Nerney and Associates P.O. Box 93 Long Lake, NY,

2 Brain Studies

3 New Research MEG Magnetoencephalography SQUID Magnetometry

4 New research on the adolescent brain
Discoveries from Neuroimaging fMRI Diffusion Spectrum Imaging

5 Developmental changes
Chemical Trigger for Puberty Kisspeptin Signal to Endocrine System Production of New Hormones Male/Female

6 Adolescent hormones Pituitary Growth Hormone (PGH) Physical Growth
Skeletal Muscular Head and Face Self Esteem drop Spotlight phenomenon

7 Adolescent hormones, Cont.
Testosterone Primary and Secondary Sex Characteristics Estrogen

8 The brain

9 Why is this Brain at Risk?
200 Billion Cells Grey Matter White Matter Migration and Activation Cell Migration Benchmarks

10 Why is this Brain at Risk? Cont.
Emotional Intensity 2 to 4 Times More Frequent Change Male/Female Legitimate/Normal

11 Why is this brain At risk? Cont.
Emotional Intensity Mirror, Mirror Male/Female Brain Differences

12 Why is this Brain at Risk? Cont.
Depression Serotonin Synthesis

13 Impact of targeting Attacks on appearance Stress chemistry
Negative emotions Area 25 overdrive

14 Why is this Brain at Risk? Cont.
Risk Taking New Sites of Activity Influence of Peers Male/Female Problem Solving No Load Social/Emotional Crisis

15 why is this brain at risk? Cont.
Problem Solving Social/Emotional Crisis The Crisis Chemical THP Emotional Support Essential

16 Risk factors, cont. Emotional Stressors Boredom Money Social Bonding
Negative Emotions Boredom Money

17 Teens and Conflict Migration and Activation Don’t Take It Personally
Cell Migration L1 Benchmarks “I Know!” Open Conflict Don’t Take It Personally

18 Risk factors, cont. Males Older male siblings Females Early puberty

19 Risk Factors Family Dysfunction Emotional and Learning Disorders
School Failure Social Isolation

20 Stress in America-apa study
13-23 Highest stress First time ever 27% Extreme stress 8-10 55% Moderate stress 5-7

21 Stress defined Brain Chemical Response when situations are perceived as: Difficult, Dangerous or Painful Situations can be Physical, Academic, Social, Emotional Demands are perceived to exceed existing resources

22 Stress in america Emotional cost Negative emotions Anxiety Depression
Frustration Anger Shift in age for suicidal behaviors

23 Stress response Release of chemicals, including: Norepinephrine
Cortisol B Adrenaline Glucocortcoids

24 Stress response, continued
Fight or Flight; Freeze; Tend and Befriend Heart Rate Increases Blood Pressure Increases Rate of Respiration Increases Hyper-vigilance GI Activity – lump in throat, knot in stomach

25 Stress response Prefrontal cortex Glucocorticoids
GATA1 transcription factor Synaptic connections Glucocorticoids Hippocampus receptors Diminished volume

26 Stress response, continued
Brain Jam – Perseverating Thoughts Impact on: Sleep Appetite Mood Behaviors Relationships

27 Negative responses to stress
Flee the Scene Break Down and Cry Snarky Effect “Catastrophize” Negative Self-Talk

28 Depression at College The second leading cause of death on college campuses (after accidents) is suicide. 86% of college students have felt overwhelmed. 81% have felt exhausted. 30% have felt too depressed to function. 6.6% of college students have seriously considered suicide.

29 Outside forces Academic Classes Homework Papers Grades Competition

30 Inner forces Not good enough The Perfection Standard
An A+ is unacceptable I have redone this 5 times Better than everyone NEEDS WORK!

31 Outside Forces, continued
Family Parents Expectations Conflicts Siblings Changes

32 Outside Forces, continued
Peers BFFs Romantic Relationships Social Groups Teams Events

33 Outside Forces, continued
Environment Dorms Roommates Home Neighborhood Bullies

34 High risk behaviors Drug and Alcohol Use Medicate for Feelings
Limited Practice Skills No Life Skills Social/Emotional Relationship Adult Brain Less Fire Power Harder Work

35 CONCERNS Brain Changes Related to Substance Abuse
Reward System Shutdown Systemic Chemical Change CREB Embedded Emotional Memory New Protein Activity PKMzeta

36 Long Term Outcomes of Underage Drinking and Drug Abuse
10% Loss of Volume in Prefrontal Cortex Executive Function Learning Reasoning

37 Long term outcomes 10% Loss of Volume in Hippocampus Memory Motivation
Social Behaviors

38 Bullies Who are they? Middle school students
High school and College students Males and Females

39 bullies How many are there? Intentional Meanness 10-15% Male/Female
12% 12% 38% % Homophobic taunts Intentional Meanness As many as 30% Males-26% Females-24% H-T

40 Bullies, continued How do they get away with it? Transitions
Areas of low supervision Ineffective interventions

41 Bullies, continued What do they do? Verbal: Teasing, taunting,
Name-calling, threatening Social: Excluding, isolating, Starting rumors, embarrassing Physical: Striking, tripping, spitting Property destruction

42 Bullies, cont. Change in Area 25 Why should you help?
Negative Emotions and Stress Chemistry Change in neural activity Change in Area 25 Sleep Disorders Low self esteem Depression Suicide

43 Elements of Bullying Enabling: Parents Peers Teachers Coaches

44 Ineffective Tactics Peer to peer mediation Conflict resolution
Anger management Empathy Building

45 Ineffective Tactics, continued
Felicia had reported the taunts to an administrator, who arranged mediation sessions between Felicia and the boys she said were harassing her. Police are now investigating her death. Neither they nor the Education Department nor the school would comment on the bullying allegations.

46 Bullying Intervention: C.A.R.E.
C onsequences A dult Supervision R estitution E ducation

47 Environmental Control
Strong System-Wide Value Policies and Rules Posted Plan for Supervision Central Reporting Consistent Consequences

48 Staff Response Support and Reassurance Ask the Right Questions
Report to Central Control

49 Staff Response, continued
Document Request Info Regarding Plan Follow Up with Adolescent

50 Staff Response, continued
Immediate Intervention Restate Rules Link to Values

51 Staff Response, continued
Proximity Consequence

52 Effective stress reduction
First things first What can be eliminated? Who can provide support?

53 Relaxation response “It’s All Good” Critical for Health and Success

54 Sleep, eat and succeed Sleep Nap Time 8 ½ - 10 ½ hours Catch Up
No Electronics

55 Eat to succeed Food Protein Iron Omega-3s Control Caffeine

56 You’ve got skills Mindfulness Meditation MRI Studies
Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Teens MRI Studies

57 Skills, continued Focus on Breathing Present Moment Counting
Feel Inhale and Exhale Stray Thoughts Noted and Released

58 Skills, continued Grounding Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Sensory Inputs Visualize Your Favorite Place Stray Thoughts Noted and Release Progressive Muscle Relaxation Start at Your Toes Work Up to Your Forehead Stray Thoughts Noted and Released

59 Academic success Effective classroom characteristics High expectations
Low anxiety Time to focus

60 Academic success Classroom characteristics Quiet time
Daydream believer Mix of competitive and cooperative

61 Academic success Male/Female brain differences Emotional Memory
Space and Activity Sensory Learning

62 Classroom characteristics
Male/Female brain differences Testing for everyone Best seat in the house

63 Academic success Praise and Encouragement Positive Reinforcement
Perseverance Effort Strategies Learn from failure

64 Why is this brain at risk? Cont.
A Work in Progress Stages of Adolescent Development Emerging Adult Brain The Long and Winding Road

65 COMPONENTS OF TRUST Reliability Predictability Faith

66 Wrap up Validate Emotions Social Bonding Risk-Taking Opportunities
Crisis Support Early Intervention


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