2 The players who have a role in managing biodiversity operate at a variety of scales, from local to global. Some groups are committed to conservation, while others rely on exploitation of the resource. Conflicts are inevitable.
3 Who are the players with an interest in ecosystem management?
4 Global playersCountries meet to develop wildlife conservation strategies. With an agreed number of signatures, they can become international treaties or laws. The treaties mainly fund conservation work, designate protected areas and regulate trade in endangered species.
5 The 5 most influential treaties in effect (but agreed before the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992) are:The Ramsar ConventionThe World Heritage ConventionThe Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild AnimalsThe UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)(see page 89)
6 Transnational corporations They determine which goods are produced and how (in detrimental or environmentally friendly ways)Traditionally they exploit resourcesHowever, they are becoming more involved in green strategies – concerned about public image and long term benefitsInvesting in ‘climate proofing’ and renewable energy projectsThey transfer new technology to countries, sometimes with positive effects but usually negative effects for ecosystems.
7 International institutions UN agencies (e.g. UNESCO, UNDP, UNCTAD)The World BankThe World Trade Organisation (WTO)The International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO): a group of tropical timber producers and consumer countries that have developed forest conservation measures – although they tend to be large scale projects that don’t meet long term need in LEDCs
8 Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) NGOs play a vital role in biodiversity conservation. WWF and Greenpeace operate globally.WWF operates in over 100 countries, its mission is to stop degradation of the planet’s natural environment.
9 NGOs continued...NGOs vary in their methods of action and don't always agree on policies and tactics. Greenpeace for example, take direct action such as intercepting Japanese whaling ships, achieving wide media coverage.NGOs also operate at national and local scales, e.g. The National Trust
10 National playersGovernments – establish laws to conserve genetic biodiversity, protect areas and species and to regulate damaging activities such as pollution. They manage natural resources, including providing clean air, water or open space. The fund conservation. They pay subsidies, e.g. paying farmers to farm in environmentally friendly ways:
11 Local playersIndigenous peoples often depend on biodiversity for basic survival. Biodiversity may also have spiritual significance:However, local communities of farmers and fishermen often have strong views about conservation as it can conflict with their subsistence.
12 Local players continued: With good management however, local communities can form a vital force for conservation, e.g. where people manage their own resources for ecotourism: Ecotourism - Mamiraua Case Study - Sustainable Ecotourism - Clip 6.mpgIn the UK, county wildlife trusts (small scale NGOs) have their own biodiversity plans to involve local people in conservation, e.g. Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust, whose mission is ‘to protect and enhance the wildlife and habitats of Nottinghamshire’
13 Individual playersFirstly, they are consumers who demand food, water, fuel, shelter, etc.In the developed world, ethical consumerism has led people to choosing environmentally friendly products, such as ‘dolphin friendly tuna’.Local food campaigns highlight the ‘food mile’ aspects of supermarket operations.Individuals also see ecosystems as places for recreation or even spiritual renewal.Tourism in places like the Galapagos and Antarctica causes ecosystem management issues
14 Individual players continued: Individuals such as divers, birdwatchers, anglers or walkers may unite to form special interest groups. At times their actions can cause damage in high quality eco-regions and hotspotsScientists and researchers work for a range of organisations to monitor and enhance biodiversity. However, other may work for pharmaceutical companies to find new products, which can lead to conflicts with indigenous people.
15 Homework:Find out about what the organisations on the next slide actually do!, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, !
16 The 5 most influential treaties in effect (but agreed before the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992) are:The Ramsar ConventionThe World Heritage ConventionThe Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild AnimalsThe UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)(see page 89)