In an active voice sentence, the subject (the one who does the action in the sentence) is clearly stated as the subject. The thing that the subject does something to (the direct object) comes after the verb. Subject-Verb-Object
Examples Kathy wrote an essay. Carly made an apple pie.
Examples Kathy wrote an essay. Carly made an apple pie. The subject of the sentence performs the action.
In a passive voice sentence, the thing that the subject does something to is places as the subject of the sentence. The subject (the one who does the action) is placed after the subject, usually in a prepositional phrase. Sometimes the subject is hidden or not even mentioned.
Examples An essay was written by Amy. Where is the subject? An essay was written. Where is the subject?
When the receiver of the action is more important than the subject. Active: The ELC gave a scholarship to Deborah. Passive: Deborah was given a scholarship by the ELC. Where is the emphasis in these sentences?
What is the form of the passive? In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. be + past participle Active: Freddie ate a sandwich. Passive: The sandwich was eaten by Freddie Notice that the subject of the active verb follows by in the passive sentence. This noun is called the “agent.”
11-2 Tense Forms of the Passive TENSE Simple Present Present Progressive Present Perfect Simple Past Past Progressive Past Perfect Simple Future be going to Future Perfect ACTIVE I make a cake. I’m making a cake. I have made a cake. I made a cake. I was making a cake. I had made a cake. I will make a cake I’m going to make a cake I will have made a cake PASSIVE A cake is made. A cake is being made. A cake has been made. A cake was made. A cake was being made. A cake had been made. A cake will be made. A cake is going to be made. A cake will have been made.
**Never use do, does, or did with the passive ** They didn’t sell all the tickets for the concert. All the tickets weren’t sold. We do not give lessons on public holidays. Lessons are not given on public holidays.
Today: 11-3 Using the Passive 11-4 The Passive Form of Modals and Phrasal Modals 11-6 Common Non-Progressive Passive Verbs + Prepositions
11-3 Using the Passive Usually the passive is used without by-phrase. The passive is most frequently used when it is not known or not important to know exactly who performs an action. Example: The sweater was made in Taiwan. If the speaker knows who performs an action, usually the active is used. Example: My sister made this sweater. However, the speaker can choose to use the passive with a by-phrase when they know who performed the action to emphasize the subject of a sentence. Example: This sweater was made by my sister.