Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Reliability and Validity Reliability dependability if I repeated the experiment would I get the same result if someone else repeated the experiment would they get the same result Validity truthfulness how well an idea or concept matches reality accuracy
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Ways to enhance Reliability Clearly conceptualise all constructs Each measure should indicate only one concept Increase level of measurement A 10 point scale is better than a 3 point scale Use pre-tests, pilot studies, and replication Validity Multiple Measures (behavioural, attitudinal) Multiple Observers (More than one researcher) Theory (Compare how different theorists understand a topic) Method (Use a variety of methods)
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Credibility/dependability Do the accounts sound credible? Do the records recorded match the setting the credibility criteria involves establishing that the results of qualitative research are credible or believable from the perspective of the participant in the research since from this perspective, the purpose of qualitative research is to describe or understand the phenomena of interest from the participant's eyes, the participants are the only ones who can legitimately judge the credibility of the results.
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School transferability Acknowledgement of how representative is the sample studied transferability refers to the degree to which the results of qualitative research can be generalized or transferred to other contexts or settings. the qualitative researcher can enhance transferability by doing a thorough job of describing the research context and the assumptions that were central to the research. The person who wishes to 'transfer' the results to a different context is then responsible for making the judgment of how sensible the transfer is.
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School confirmability Data is factual and confirmable confirmability refers to the degree to which the results could be confirmed or corroborated by others there are a number of strategies for enhancing confirmability the researcher can document the procedures for checking and rechecking the data throughout the study another researcher can take a "devil's advocate" role with respect to the results, and this process can be documented the researcher can actively search for and describe and negative instances that contradict prior observations
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Triangulation Triangulation refers to the use of more than one approach to the investigation of a research question in order to enhance confidence in the ensuing findings. within method between method
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Triangulation Data triangulation gathering data through several sampling strategies, so that slices of data at different times and social situations, as well as on a variety of people, are gathered Investigator triangulation the use of more than one researcher in the field to gather and interpret data. Theoretical triangulation the use of more than one theoretical position in interpreting data Methodological triangulation the use of more than one method for gathering data
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Ethical issues in research Ethical issues arise at all stages of the research process Kinds of problem being researched Negotiating access Methods for data collection Context of research The sample The data collected Uses of the data
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Beneficence the research should provide some benefit to those being researched research should maximize positive outcomes difficult to achieve because in reality, only some research and some parts of a research project will turn out as expected
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Respect this is a basic tenet that requires researchers to ensure that they use procedures that do not diminish human dignity design and conduct research so that it protects those being studied researchers are responsible for protecting the autonomy and freedom of individuals while conducting research
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Justice research uses only carefully considered procedures that are administered impartially there should be an equal distribution of risks and costs throughout all populations that might benefit from the research does the research have real value to many people?
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Informed consent research participants have a right to limit access to themselves, and therefore, we need to let them know what we are asking of them we provide sufficient information about the survey to allow the respondent to determine if s/he wants to participate. we describe risks and benefits risks are generally few (loss of time) and benefits are sometimes questionable
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Confidentiality confidentiality protects the privacy of the respondents they provide us information that they expect will not be publicly shared our responsibility is to ensure that only those who need to know the identities of the respondents can have access to the information
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Ethical issues in education Sensitive topics Is your topic likely to cause harm to your participants or yourself Vulnerable groups Do you need to take special steps to protect your participants - minors, disabled Deception Power issues Researcher/participant Maintaining Participants’ Anonymity For people intimate with the situation
Southampton Education School Southampton Education School Research Risks Physical Risks participants researchers researcher’s organization Psychological Risk Financial Risk Reputational Risks