Electricity refers to the presence of electric current in wires, motors, light bulbs, and other devices. Electricity carries power. Power (P) is defined as a rate of change in work or energy over a period of time. Its unit is Joules/second or Watt.
* These batteries have a voltage of 1.5 volts. (a difference of 1.5 volts of energy between the + and - ends) * If you connect batteries positive-to-negative, each battery adds 1.5 volts to the total. * Three batteries make 4.5 volts. * Each unit of current coming out of the positive end of the three-battery stack has 4.5 joules of energy.
* A battery uses chemical energy to move electrons. It is a voltage source. * A fully charged battery adds energy proportional to its voltage.
* The resistance of electrical devices ranges from very small (0.001 Ω) to very large (10×10 6 Ω). * Each device is designed with a resistance that allows the right amount of current to flow when connected to the voltage the device was designed for.
* The resistance of many materials, including those in light bulbs, increases as temperature increases. * A graph of current versus voltage for a light bulb shows a curve. * A device with constant resistance would show a straight line on this graph.
Electrical conductivity describes a material’s ability to pass electric current.
There are two types of electrical circuits through which current can flow. series In series circuits, current can only take one path. The amount of current is the same at all points in a series circuit.
parallel In parallel circuits the current can take more than one path. Because there are multiple branches, the current is not the same at all points in a parallel circuit.