Student- Centered Instructional Strategies Using the proper approach for the situation at hand is essential in teaching. Teacher-centered instruction – Mini-lecture Student-centered instruction – Group activities Teachers must accept the idea that learning is an active process – not only acquisition of information Use a variety of techniques to maximize the learning process
Student- Centered Instructional Strategies A number of skills must be taught: - critical thinking - independent inquiry - problem solving - active group participation Group activity is a part of life - workplace - round table discussions - religious and club activities Group skills are learned, not natural.
Student- Centered Instructional Strategies Learning activities must be appropriate for the information being taught ◦ Writing – not learned by recognizing grammatical constructions of sentences ◦ Playing soccer – not learned from a lecture Keep the following things in mind when selecting instruction: ◦ Mode of instruction determines what is learned ◦ Students must be actively involved in learning ◦ Have high expectations for all students ◦ Students need constant feedback about learning ◦ Students need independent study and cooperative learning ◦ Regardless of your content area, you are also a teacher of reading, writing, thinking and study skills Learning must be meaningful – use direct experiences often
Teacher-Centered Learning vs. Student Centered Learning Teacher-centered: Strengths: Lot of content can be covered in a short amount of time Teacher is in control of what is covered Student achievement is predictable Weaknesses: Student motivation is extrinsic Students have little control over pace of learning Students make few decisions about their learning No opportunity for creativityStudent-Centered: Strenghts: Students learn content, and in more depth Students develop a sense of personal self worth Source of motivation is most likely intrinsic Weaknesses: Content coverage may be more limited Strategies are time consuming Teacher has less control over content and time Specific results are less predictable
Selecting Learning Activities When students are involved in direct experiences, they use more sensory channels Results in more integrated and effective learning that is meaningful and long lasting Learning by doing creates authentic learning Example: Teaching about tide pools Student-Centered/Direct Experience Examples: (Use many sensory channels) Visiting and experiencing a tide pool (see, hear, touch, smell) Building a classroom model of a tide pool Watching a video or program on tide pools Teacher-Centered Examples: (Use only one sensory channel) Teacher lectures about tide pools (see only) Use of charts, diagrams, pictures, etc. of tide pools *The most effective and longest-lasting learning is that which engages the most senses and direct/hand-on activities
Involvement with Student- Centered Activities How many of the following activities have you experiences during learning? How did you like the activities? Do you feel they were more effective than lecture? -Brainstorming -Case Study -Committee -Debate -Discovery -Whole class discussion -Field trip -Forum -Learning activity center -Role-playing -Roundtable discussion - Panel discussion
Paired Learning Inquiry Teaching (Good for teaching thinking skills) Inquiry Teaching (Good for teaching thinking skills) Think-Pair-Share Paired Team Learning The Learning Center Peer tutoring Think-Pair-Share Paired Team Learning The Learning Center Peer tutoring Problem Solving Inquiry & Discovery Problem Solving Inquiry & Discovery Learning in Small Groups Complete activities Summarize, question, predict Cooperative learning groups – small groups from mixed backgrounds Complete activities Summarize, question, predict Cooperative learning groups – small groups from mixed backgrounds Project-Centered Learning Students select topic for project Include writing as part of project Can be in groups or individual Students select topic for project Include writing as part of project Can be in groups or individual Methods of Interactive Student Participation
Writing Across the Curriculum – You too, are a teacher of writing! Writing should be encouraged in all areas of curriculum Types of Writing: Analysis – Speculates cause and effect Autobiographical Incident – narrates event in their life Evaluation – judges worth of item, such as a film Eyewitness account – describes event writer knows well Problem solving – analyze problem and argue solution Report of info – collects data and chooses material that best represents a concept Story – uses dialogue to show conflict between character and environment
Learning by Educational Games Educational games include a variety of learning activities: Purposes of Educational Games: Mind games Board games Computer games Sporting games Mind games Board games Computer games Sporting games Add variety & change of pace to instruction Assess student learning Motivate students Offer break from usual modes of learning Provide learning through real life simulations Review subject matter learning *Experiences tend to involve many senses, therefore creating valuable learning experiences for the pupils
We Are Almost Done Combine instructional strategies for an effective teaching and learning experience Activities that engage many senses enhance the learning experience Student-centered instruction may be hard to implement – it requires careful preparation However - it is worth the time! Don’t be that beginning teacher who only uses the traditional teacher-centered approaches.