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Medicines and Drugs Chapter 23.

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Presentation on theme: "Medicines and Drugs Chapter 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medicines and Drugs Chapter 23

2 Classifications of Medicines
Medicines are drugs that are used to treat or prevent disease or other conditions Drugs are substances other than food that change the structure or function of the body or mind.

3 Medicines that Prevent Disease
A vaccine is a preparation introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response

4 Medicines and the Body Medicines can have a variety of effects on individuals, or can cause different reactions. Side effects are the reactions to medicine other than the one intended

5 Medicines and the Body When medicines are taken together or with certain foods, the combination may produce different effects. Addictive interaction occurs when medicines work together in a positive way Synergistic effect is an interaction of two or more medicines that results in a greater effect than when the medicines are taken alone. One medicine increases the effect of the other Antagonistic interaction occurs when the effect of one medicine is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine

6 Other Potential Problems
Tolerance A condition in which the body becomes used to the effect of the medicine, so…. The body needs an increasingly larger dose of the medicine to produce the same effect Withdrawal Occurs when a person stops using a medicine on which he or she has a chemical dependence. Nervousness, insomnia, severe headaches, vomiting, chills and cramps. Possibly medical intervention

7 Medicine Misuse Giving a prescription medicine to a person for whom it was not prescribed or taking another person’s medicine Taking too much or too little of a medicine or taking a medicine for a longer or shorter period than prescribed Discontinuing use of a medicine without informing the health care professional Mixing medicines

8 Substance Abuse Any unnecessary or improper use of chemical substances for nonmedical purposes Illegal drugs, chemical substances that people of any age may not lawfully manufacture, possess, buy or sell Illicit drugs, the use or sale of any substance that is illegal or otherwise not permitted

9 Factors that Influence Decisions About Drugs
Peer pressure Family members Role models Media messages Perceptions

10 Health Consequences Physical Mental/emotional Social
Once a drug enters the bloodstream it can harm a user’s brain, heart, lungs and other vital organs Overdose, strong, sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug. Mental/emotional Drugs cloud reasoning and thinking; lose control of behavior Social Negative effect on relationships with friends or family members

11 Understanding the Addiction Cycle
Tolerance Psychological Dependence Physical Tolerance Addiction

12 Tolerance The body of the substance abuser needs more and more of the drug.

13 Psychological Dependence
A condition in which a person believes that a drug is needed in order to feel good or to function normally. Develops over time Desired effect

14 Physiological Dependence
A condition in which the user has a chemical need for the drug Feelings of withdrawal from the drug after taking it. Symptoms include: Nervousness Insomnia Severe nausea Headaches Vomiting Chills Cramps Even, death

15 Addiction Dependence on the drug
Causes persistent, compulsive use of a substance known by the user to be harmful People who are addicted have great difficulty stopping use

16 Marijuana Contains 421 different chemicals
D-alpha-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient Stored in the body for days Raises level of dopamine Pleasurable feeling; euphoria (feeling of intense well-being or elation) Health risks – pg. 599

17 Stimulants Drugs that speed up the central nervous system
Cocaine Crack Amphetamines Methamphetamines

18 Depressants Drugs that slow down the central nervous system
Barbiturates Tranquilizers Rohypnol GHB

19 Narcotics Specific drugs that are obtainable only by prescription and are used to relieve pain.
Opium Morphine Heroin Codeine

20 Hallucinogens Drugs that alter moods, thoughts, and sense perceptions including vision, hearing, smell and touch. PCP LSD Ecstasy Ketamine

21 Inhalants Substances whose fumes are sniffed and inhaled to achieve a mind-altering effect. Once inhaled, it goes immediately to the brain causing damage and killing cells Could cause permanent damage or even death Easily accessible for young teens

22 Steroids Synthetic substances that are similar to the male sex hormone – testosterone Anabolic refers to muscle building Androgenic refers to increased male characteristics Can cause: Mood swings Impaired judgment Paranoia

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