Presentation on theme: "Unit III: The Progressive Movement I: Social Reform: (Great Migration, Urban Poor, Women’s Rights, Workers Rights) II: Political & Economic Reform III:"— Presentation transcript:
Unit III: The Progressive Movement I: Social Reform: (Great Migration, Urban Poor, Women’s Rights, Workers Rights) II: Political & Economic Reform III: Presidential Reform Efforts (Environmental Reform)
I.The Great Migration A. What was the Great Migration? B. What were the causes of the GM? C. What were the effects of the GM?
I.What was the Great Migration? A. Description of Great Migration 1. 1 st GM- the migration of 1.6 mil African- Americans from the South to the North b/t the years 1910- 1940. 2. 2 nd GM- over 5 mil. Afr. Amer. b/t 1940- 1970. Jacob Lawrence’s first in his Migration series (Whitney)
3. G.M created the first large, urban black communities in the North. 4. The North saw its black population rise about 20 percent between 1910 and 1930. a. Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Cleveland -- biggest increases.
II. Causes of the G.M A. Push: escape the problems of racism in the South 1. Legal & Social Discrimination a. "Jim Crow" Laws: segregation, poll taxes, examinations, property qualifications, & grandfather clauses limiting the ability of blacks to vote.
b. Laws requiring separate public amenities (Plessy V. Ferguson) c. Ku Klux Klan- Lynching & the social institutions of racism d. Courts: blacks were not afforded the same legal protection as whites & they had little access to legal defense.
B. Pull: Economic Opportunities 1.Job Opportunities higher wages from railroads & factories. 2. The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields in the late 1910s forced many sharecroppers to search for alternative employment opportunities.boll weevilcotton sharecroppers
3. war industries created new jobs in the service jobs that new factory workers vacated 4. Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 displaced hundreds of thousands of African-American farmers & farm workersGreat Mississippi Flood of 1927
C. Chicago Defender 1. 1905 most influential of African American newspapers 2. printed photographs, cartoons & even poems about the advantages of moving north. 3. Writers generated "moving fever," by sending letters & money to family
D. Discrimination in the North 1. Restrictive housing, living, & working policies 2. Segregated into the most dilapidated (ruined) sections of the city 3. High prices for inferior housing 4. Discriminated against in the workplace.
E. Fight for Civil Rights African American ideas on improving social & economic conditions of blacks. Booker T. Washington W.E.B Dubois Marcus Garvey
1.Marcus Garvey a. Born in Jamaica to an educated family b. founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) at its zenith, the UNIA claimed over a million members. "Our success educationally, industrially and politically is based upon the protection of a nation founded by ourselves. And the nation can be nowhere else but in Africa."
c. believed Blacks should have a permanent homeland in Africa, & sought to develop Liberia.Liberia d. credited with creating the biggest pan- African movement (1920’s)
Booker T. WashingtonViews on Achieving racial equality Booker T. Washington -believed that blacks should not push too hard for equal rights but to instead focus on learning vocational skills as a path to economic progress. -believed that blacks should not push too hard for equal rights but to instead focus on learning vocational skills as a path to economic progress.
W.E.B DuboisViews on Achieving racial equality W.E.B Dubois -believed that A.A should fight to gain equal rights, especially voting rights -believed that A.A should fight to gain equal rights, especially voting rights -Started the Niagara mov’t (1905) which was meeting of A.A leaders in Niagara Falls, NY -Started the Niagara mov’t (1905) which was meeting of A.A leaders in Niagara Falls, NY -eventually began the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) whose goal was to fight for rights $