Presentation on theme: "Credit given to Ms. Chapoton and Holt’s Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Credit given to Ms. Chapoton and Holt’s Psychology
Anxiety refers to a generalized state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger, as opposed to fear, which is a response to a real danger or threat. Characterized by nervousness, inability to relax, concern about losing control, trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, and/or increased blood pressure. Everyone feels anxious at times, but constant anxiety can interfere with effective living.
Phobic Disorder Phobia: derives from the Greek root phobos, which means “fear” Specific phobia is the most common of all anxiety disorders and refers to a persistent excessive fear of a particular object or situation. Most common include Zoophobia: fear of animals Claustrophobia: fear of enclosed spaces Acrophobia: fear of heights Arachnophobia: fear of spiders Social phobia is characterized by persistent fear of social situations in which one might be exposed to the scrutiny of others.
Common and uncommon fears Afraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of it Being closed in, in a small place Being alone In a house at night Percentage of people surveyed 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 SnakesBeing in high, exposed places MiceFlying on an airplane Spiders and insects Thunder and lightning DogsDriving a car Being In a crowd of people Cats
Panic Disorder- People with panic disorder have recurring and unexpected panic attacks, or relatively short periods of intense fear or discomfort characterized by shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid heart rate, trembling, choking, chest pain, etc. Agoraphobia- the fear of being in places or situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible such as crowded public places. – Many people with agoraphobia develop panic attacks when in public.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder- An excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least six months. Few people seek treatment because it does not differ, except in intensity and duration, from the normal worries of everyday life.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again, and most people try to ignore or suppress them. Compulsions are repetitive ritual behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning something. People are usually aware that the obsessions are unjustified, which distinguishes obsessions from delusions.
Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Thought or BehaviorPercentage* Reporting Symptom Obsessions (repetitive thoughts) Concern with dirt, germs, or toxins 40 Something terrible happening (fire, death, illness) 40 Symmetry order, or exactness 24 Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, 85 or grooming Compulsions (repetitive behaviors) Repeating rituals (in/out of a door, 51 up/down from a chair) Checking doors, locks, appliances, 46 car brake, homework
PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorder High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention
Stress Disorders- Include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder Similar symptoms, but PTSD is more severe and longer-lasting PTSD occurs after rape, abuse, severe accident, natural disasters, and war atrocities.
Psychological Views: Psychoanalytic views are no longer widely accepted, but have affected the classification of psychological disorders. Learning theorists believe that phobias are learned in childhood. Cognitive theorists believe that people make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situations. Biological Views Heredity may play a role Studies of twins indicate that having a parent or sibling with a disorder increases the chance an individual will have a disorder. Some psychologists believe that people who rapidly acquired strong fears of real dangers would be more likely to live and reproduce.
Most people have mood changes that reflect the normal ups and downs of life, but mood changes that are inappropriate to a situation can signal a mood disorder. Two types: depression and bipolar disorder
Bipolar Disorder- A cycle of mood changes from depression to wild elation and back again Formerly called manic-depressive disorder Period of mania, or extreme excitement characterized by hyperactivity and chaotic behavior
PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swings for those who have Bipolar Disorder. Depressed stateManic stateDepressed state
Major Depression- Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, irritability, restlessness, loss of interest in once-pleasurable activities, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, changes in appetite, persistent aches or pains, and great sadness Some behaviors may include withdrawal from social activities, insomnia or excessive sleeping The DSM-IV contains a list of symptoms to help diagnose Postpartum Depression- Some women suffer symptoms of depression after giving birth that can harm both mother and child
Percentage of population aged 18-84 experiencing major depression at some point In life 20 15 10 5 0 USA Edmonton Puerto Paris West Florence Beirut Taiwan Korea New Rico Germany Zealand Around the world women are more susceptible to depression
12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Age in Years 10% 8 6 4 2 0 Percentage depressed Females Males
15-24 25-34 35-44 45-44 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ Suicides per 100,000 people 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Males Females The higher suicide rate among men greatly increases in late adulthood
Increasing rates of teen suicide 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 12% 10 8 6 4 2 0 Suicide rate, ages 15 to 19 (per 100,000)
Psychological Views The psychoanalytic view of depression connects the past to the present Learning theorists: “learned helplessness” makes people prone Cognitive theorists: habitual style of explaining life events Attribution theory: people assign different types of explanations to events, which affects self-esteem and self-efficacy. Beck suggests that people who are depressed have a negative view of themselves, their experiences, and their future. Biological Views Mood disorders occur more often in the close relatives of affected individuals than they do in the general population Two neurotransmitters in the brain—serotonin and noradrenaline—may partly explain the connection between genes and mood. A combination of factors is most likely at work
Altering any one component of the chemistry- cognition-mood circuit can alter the others Brain chemistry Cognition Mood