3 Power plant is the place where electricity produced using some conventional or nonconventional energy sources.Based on the source of energy power plants are classified into different typesThermal power plantHydro electric power plantnuclear power plantGas turbine power plantDiesel engine power plant
6 The fuel used in thermal power plant is coal The fuel used in thermal power plant is coal. By burning this coal steam produced in the boiler. Steam is utilised to drive the steam turbine which are coupled directly to the electric generator.
8 The diesel burns inside the engine and the combustion process causes rotational mechanical energy that turns the engine shaft and drives the alternator.The alternator in turn, converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.Usually diesel plants in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacities are used.
9 ComponentsEngine It is the main component of power plant this engine basically an IC engine directly coupled with an alternator for producing electricity.Air supply system for providing the oxygen required for burning, atmospheric air is used. Air is drawn through an air filter and supplied to the engine. Air filters required for removing dust and impurities.A system provide for supplying compressed air which used to start the engine.Exhaust system This include silencer and exhaust manifold. After combustion smoke and burned particles removed from engine through this exhaust system .silencer provided in order to reduce the noise
10 Fuel system Diesel fuel stored in a storage tank Fuel system Diesel fuel stored in a storage tank. This tank mainly located outside the power plant. fuel from this tank is pumped to an all day tank through a filter. the fuel from day tank flows under gravity to the engine. Fuel injector is used to inject the required amount of fuel into the cylinder.Cooling and lubricationProper cooling is required to extend the life of the plant. In small engine air cooling is sufficient. But in large engine water or oil cooling system is used.
11 Advantages and disadvantages of diesel power plant It is more efficient than thermal power plant.Design and construction are easier and less expensive.It can start quickly. Compared to other plants, it is having less maintenance.Here fuel handling and waste removal is very simple.Space requirement is less.Also cooling water requirement is less than thermal or nuclear plantDisadvantagesLife of diesel plant is comparatively less.Heavy noise generated from diesel engine.Lubrication cost is higher.It is not economical where fuel has to be imported.
13 Nuclear power plantNuclear power is produced by controlled nuclear reactions (nuclear fission).Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity.The fission process occurs in a vessel called reactor. The heat produced in the reactor is transferred to boiler.Two types of reactor system commonly used for power generation.pressurized water reactorboiling water reactor.
16 workingHigh pressure water (above 100 bar) is used as coolant in the nuclear reactor.So the coolant water does not vapourise when it absorbs heat from the reactor.The feed water receives heat from the high pressure coolant and it is converted to steam in the heat exchanger (steam generator)Then this steam is expanded in the turbine to produce mechanical power.After that it is condensed in the condenser by circulating cooling water. Then it is fed back to the steam generator using a pump
19 workingCoolant water absorbs heat from the reactor and gets converted into steam. Reactor itself act as a steam generator.The steam generated in the reactor may contain water, so it is separated by using a steam separator and send back to the reactor.Saturated steam coming out from the separator is then expanded in the steam turbine to produce mechanical power.The steam is then condensed in the condenser and fed back to the reactor for next cycle.
20 Advantages: Disadvantages Nuclear power plant is more economical compared with thermal plants where coal field is far away.Manpower requirement is less. Therefore cost of operation reduced.Nuclear plant occupies less space than thermal power plant, which reduces the cost of civil constructionDisadvantagesHandling should be very careful. There is a danger of nuclear radiation.Disposing the radioactive waste is very difficultit has to be operated at full load throughout for good efficiency.
22 components Water reservoir Dam Penstock Surge tank Hydraulic turbine Draft tubesurge tank is a small reservoir fitted in the penstock pipe. It is provided to avoid the sudden pressure rise in the penstock due to closing of regulating valve.when valve is closed excess water will be stored in the surge tank
23 workingThe potential energy of the water stored in the reservoir is initially converted into kinetic energy by passing through the nozzle fitted at the end of the penstock pipe.The kinetic energy of the water is then converted into mechanical energy by passing it through the blades of the turbine, so the turbine rotor rotates.Then it is converted to electrical energy by a generator coupled to the turbine