SOUNDING THE ALARM “If you do not learn to read and you live in America, You do not make it in life.” -Patton & Holmes, The Keys to Literacy
SOUNDING THE ALARM “There aren’t two worlds, education and work; there is one world— LIFE. -Willard Wirtz
SOUNDING THE ALARM How much will you be worth? $18,000Poverty Level $10,712Fast food worker $19,169High School dropouts $28,645High School graduates $51,554College graduates US Census Bureau
CAUSE FOR ALARM Every day, more than three thousand students drop out of high school. Alliance for Excellent Education 2003
DID YOU KNOW? Out of every 100 Kentucky 9 th graders...
DID YOU KNOW? Out of every 100 Kentucky 9 th graders... 65 graduate from high school...
DID YOU KNOW? Out of every 100 Kentucky 9 th graders... 39 enter college...
DID YOU KNOW? Out of every 100 Kentucky 9 th graders... 15 graduate from college. Kentucky Department of Education
CAUSE FOR ALARM More than eight million students in the United States are struggling readers. U.S. DOE 2003
CAUSE FOR ALARM Reading below grade level: 70% of 9 th graders 60% of 12 th graders Reading Next
CAUSE FOR ALARM Research has demonstrated that the reading performance of: 8 th graders has remained flat 12 th graders has declined --Adolescents and Literacy: Reading for the 21 st Century, Alliance for Excellent Education
CAUSE FOR ALARM “Very few older struggling readers need help to read the words on a page; their most common problem is that they are not able to comprehend what they read.” ReadingNext
What Prevents Most Students from Becoming Proficient Readers?
TEACHER CONNECTION Research has demonstrated that: Little direct attention has been devoted to helping teachers develop the skills they need to promote reading comprehension. Teacher preparation has not adequately addressed comprehension instruction. --RAND Reading Study Group (RRSG)
TEACHER CONNECTION “Every classroom teacher has the direct responsibility for developing those reading skills and abilities essential for adequate comprehension with his particular area of instruction...” --Adolescents and Literacy: Reading for the 21 st Century, Alliance for Excellent Education
TEACHER CONNECTION Essential Question— How can teachers motivate and engage struggling readers?
MOTIVATION CRITICAL FACTOR—if students are not motivated to read, research shows that they will not benefit from reading instruction. Disposes one to read or not to read All students who increased their intrinsic motivation also increased their usage of strategies. (Defined as the cluster of personal goals, values, and beliefs with regards to topics, processes, and outcomes of reading that the individual possesses.) --Adolescents and Literacy: Reading for the 21 st Century, Alliance for Excellent Education
ENGAGEMENT When faced with choices: When an individual selects reading to the exclusion of other choices Students exhibit far more sophisticated reading away from the classroom
BEHAVIORS OF MATURE READERS vs. STRUGGLING READERS
BEFORE READING MATURE READERS STRUGGLING READERS Use prior knowledge Start reading without preparing Understand the task/ Read without knowing assignment why Choose appropriate Read without strategies considering how to strategies considering how to approach the material approach the material
DURING READING MATURE READERS STRUGGLING READERS Focus on what they Are easily distracted are reading Monitor their Do not know they do not comprehension understand—read just to done done Anticipate and Lack strategies when predict problems arise
DURING READING MATURE READERS STRUGGLING READERS Use context to Do not recognize understand new important words terms Organize and Fail to add new integrate new information information
AFTER READING MATURE READERS STRUGGLING READERS Reflect on their Stop reading and reading, summarize thinking major ideas, and seek information from other sources Feel success is due Feel success is due to effort to luck
BEHAVIORS OF MATURE READERS vs. STRUGGLING READERS Mature readers are engaged Struggling readers are disengaged
BEHAVIORS OF ENGAGED READERS vs. DISENGAGED READERS ENGAGED READERS DISENGAGE READERS Are socially Are often social misfits interactive Seek to understand Will not ask for assistance Enjoy learning Are not comfortable in school school Believe in their Have low confidence reading abilities
BEHAVIORS OF ENGAGED READERS vs. DISENGAGED READERS ENGAGED READERS DISENGAGE READERS Are mastery Are low achievers orientated Believe they can do it Procrastinate Are strategic Lack strategies Are knowledgeable Lack knowledge Are intrinsically Are extrinsically motivated motivated
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO LESS INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED STUDENTS Larger classroom settings Focus on content More formal Less student choice Less personal due to numbers Textbooks are difficult to read Teacher control increases Fewer opportunities to socialize in class
Cognitive competence +Motivation+ Social interaction =ENGAGEMENT!
HOW CAN DISENGAGED READERS BECOME ENGAGED READERS? The teacher is the key. the key.
AN ENGAGING TEACHER UNDERSTANDS: Which content is critical How the content relates to the present How to manipulate and translate content so that it is easily understood How to present content in meaningful ways
AN ENGAGING TEACHER Helps students set personal goals or objectives, monitors, and supports progress and provides feedback. Allows student choice in selecting interesting text. Fosters cooperative learning groups Reinforces effort and provides recognition Provides opportunities to hear fluent reading, everyday.
Final Thought “If you are not effective, it is irrelevant how efficient you are.” -Janet Allen