3 Sexual education is instruction on issues relating to human sexualityincluding: human sexual anatomysexual reproduction,sexual intercourse,reproductive health,emotional relations,reproductive rightsresponsibilitiesabstinence,birth control
4 Sex education can help : prevent the spread of sexual diseases,prevent unwanted pregnancies,form responsible views on own sexual behavior,encourage resistance to group pressure to engage unwanted sexual activities,understanding the difference between male and female views on romantic relations,understanding that sex is part of life of most adults and not something associated with shame and guilt.
5 Young people need to have information on : Sexual development & reproduction - the physical and emotional changes associated with puberty and sexual reproduction,fertilization and conception,sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.Contraception & birth controlhow they work, how people use them,how they decide what to use or not,and how they can be obtained.Relationships - what kinds of relationships there are, love and commitment, marriage and partnership and the law relating to sexual behavior and relationships as well as the range of religious and cultural views on sex and sexuality and sexual diversity.
6 When should sex education start? Sex education that works starts early, before young people reach puberty, and before they have developed established patterns of behavior. The precise age at which information should be provided depends on the physical, emotional and intellectual development of the young people as well as their level of understanding.
7 Giving young people basic information from an early age provides the base on which more complex knowledge is built up over time.They must be informed on how people grow and change over time, and how babies become children and then adults.This provides the basis on which they understand more about puberty provided in the pre-teenage years.
8 Does sex education at an early age encourage young people to have sex? Some people are concerned that providing information about sex and sexuality arouses curiosity and can lead to sexual experimentation. However, in a review of 48 studies of comprehensive sex and STD/HIV education programs in US schools, there was found to be strong evidence that such programs:•did not increase sexual activity•Some of them reduced sexual activity•increased rates of condom use and other contraceptives
9 HIV and AIDSHIV stands for the "human immunodeficiency virus." In other words, it is a virus that infects human being and leads to problems with their immune system. The immune system is the body's system for fighting disease.
10 AIDS, "Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome" is a group of symptoms and diseases associated with the damage HIV does to the immune system. As an HIV infection progresses, there is ongoing damage to immune defense cells and the body becomes increasingly less able to fight off infection. Individuals with advanced HIV disease are susceptible to infections that don't show up in people with healthy immune systems. These are opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the weakened ability of an HIV positive individual to fight off disease.Both the virus and the disease are often referred as HIV/AIDS. As a result, some will then develop AIDS. The development of numerous opportunistic infections in an AIDS patient can lead to death.A person can live with HIV for many yearswithout developing AIDS or any symptomsof HIV infection. This is why it is importantto be regularly tested for the virus.
11 HOW CAN HIV PREVENTION BE TRANSMITTED? The expansion and improvement of HIV and AIDS education around the world is critical to preventing the spread of HIV. There are an estimated 34 million people living with the virus, and each year millions more people become infected.HIV can be transmitted in three main ways:•Sexual transmission•Transmission through blood•Mother-to-child transmissionBreast feeding
12 HIV prevention needs to reach both people who are at risk of HIV infection and those who are already infected:• People who are already living with HIV need knowledge and support to protect their own health and to ensure that they don’t transmit HIV to others - known as “positive prevention”. Positive prevention has become increasingly important as improvements in treatment have led to a rise in the number of people living with HIV.
13 • Universal prevention measures • HIV counseling and testing are fundamental for HIV prevention.People living with HIV are less likely to transmit the virus to others if they know they are infected and if they have received counseling about safer behavior. For example, a pregnant woman who has HIV will not be able to benefit from interventions to protect her child unless her infection is diagnosed.Those who discover they are not infected can also benefit, by receiving counseling on how to remain uninfected.
14 ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT • The accessibility of antiretroviral treatment is crucial; it enables people living with HIV to enjoy longer, healthier lives, and as such acts as an incentive for HIV testing. Studies suggest that HIV-positive people may be less likely to engage in risky behavior if they are enrolled in treatment programs.• A number of studies have shown that an HIV positive person on antiretroviral treatment with an undetectable viral load has a very low risk of transmitting HIV to someone else.
15 REDUCE RISKS STUDY UP TO HERE Someone can reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV during sex by choosing to:Abstain from sex or delay first sexBe faithful to one partner or have fewer partnersCondomise, which means using male condoms or female condoms consistently and correctlySTUDY UP TO HERE
16 Sexual EducationStudies have shown that sex education is more effective at preventing sexually transmitted infections than education abstinence until marriage.Studies have shown that condoms, if used consistently and correctly, are highly effective at preventing HIV infection. Also there is no evidence that promoting condoms leads to increased sexual activity among young people.
17 What are the obstacles?It is not easy for people to sustain changes in sexual behavior.Young people often have difficulty remaining abstinentcondoms are often associated with promiscuity or lack of trust.Women in male-dominated societies are frequently unable to negotiate condom use.
18 OBSTACLESSome societies find it difficult to discuss sex openly, and some authorities restrict what subjects can be discussed in the classroom, or in public information campaigns, for moral or religious reasons. Particularly contentious issues include premarital sex, condom use and homosexuality, the last of which is illegal or taboo in much of the world.Marginalization of groups at high risk - such as sex workers and men who have sex with men - can be a major problem to HIV prevention efforts; authorities are often unwilling to allocate adequate resources to programs directed to them.