Presentation on theme: "PIAAC can help Colleges in North America to fulfill their role in the Higher Education Sector Satya Brink, Ph.D"— Presentation transcript:
PIAAC can help Colleges in North America to fulfill their role in the Higher Education Sector Satya Brink, Ph.D Satya.Brink@gmail.com
Colleges form an important component in the higher education sector but also for raising the human capital of people and the national economy PIAAC provides large picture information for a number issues facing the colleges Improving intake of students based on merit for maintaining a high standard of education Providing a responsive array of courses and programs that prepare students for work and the economy To be an efficient provider of higher education, with fewer drop outs, fewer changes in major and more students graduating in two years. To increase enrolment and to be competitive in the college sector To build a reputation based on successful graduates with a high standard of education.
Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), is also called International Survey of Adults (ISA) PIAAC measures foundational skills essential for learning of specific disciplines and transferable job related skills of adults of working age (16 to 64) at a group or population level. Complements the need for competency based tests on specific disciplines at the individual level. However, data can be analysed to provide important evidence for the college sector. 16-24 years25-34 years35-44 years45-54 years55-64 years Students in college Students in the years following college graduation HS graduation 2008-2016 HS graduation 1998-2007 HS graduation 1988-1997 HS graduation 1978-1987 HS graduation 1968-1977 College graduation 2010-2018 College graduation 2000-2009 College graduation 1990-1999 College graduation 1980-1989 College graduation 1970-1979 University graduation 2012-2020 University graduation 2002-2011 University graduation 1992-2001 University graduation 1982-1991 University graduation 1972-1981
PIAAC suggests that people need to score level 3 or above (276 and above) in literacy and numeracy to function in higher education and work in the modern world. This would be a factor to consider during the admission process Foreign born excluded Direct transition to college from High School? Gap year?
College location can be impacted by regional variation in literacy and numeracy scores and the proportion with Levels 3 and above Low literacy and numeracy scores in the population in the area affects potential enrolment, the level of the economy and therefore, the ability to pay for college related costs and the challenge to raise the human capital of the area for future economic growth.
There is high demand for graduates of STEM but only a small proportion of students of college going age (16-34 years) have high enough levels of Literacy and numeracy (Levels 4&5) Students with lower levels of literacy and numeracy will not be attracted to STEM, or they will struggle to learn with high risk of dropping out.
To increase successful enrolment ideally students should have high levels of literacy and numeracy. A high proportion of those 16-24 are already in education. Mature students without college education could be a possibility because 40% of the 82m, 25-44 in the US have only a high school credential Persons aged 16-24 In educationNot in educationOf which % who were in education in the previous 12 months. Canada66344.7 USA57.942.16.8
How should remedial courses in foundational competencies be planned? More younger students require remedial courses. Greater need for remedial courses in Numeracy than Literacy for both men and women. Women will need a longer time to build their Numeracy competency because of lower scores.
9 Mapping the results of Literacy performance shows areas for potential recruitment as well as areas for outreach
Literacy and numeracy skills are important if courses are delivered on-line. Level 3 Literacy and Numeracy is linked to ICT skills Those with no computer experience, those who failed the ICT core and those who opted out of the Computer Based Assessment had scores below Level 3.
Percentage of adults 25-34 at each proficiency level in problem solving in technology-rich environments Application of acquired knowledge can be reflected in the skill of Problem Solving in Technology Rich Environments No experience or failed core Below Level 1Level 1Level 2Level 3 Canada5188.8.131.521.3 USA5.614.432.731.5 7.3 Finland184.108.40.2067.719.8 A far greater proportion of adults of college graduation age have higher Problem Solving Competencies in Finland than in Canada or the United States. Problem Solving Skills are important for productivity and innovation in the labour market and the academic sector.
OccupationAve literacy 16-65 Ave Numeracy 16-65 Average literacy 16-24 years Average numeracy 16-24 years Average literacy 25-34 years Average numeracy 23-34 years Managerial and professional 286278292.7286.4301.9294.3 Service and support 270259277.8274.2268.6258.2 Trade, production and manufacturing 269.9271270.5267.9262.6263.3 Manual and other services 263254269.9263.3256.8247.2 Literacy and Numeracy competencies of college educated workers in occupations in Canada and the competencies of college age students 16-25 and of recent graduates 25-34 in those occupations There is no indication of skills mismatch however, younger college educated workers may not have an advantage in the job market. The competency levels are mostly at the border line of Level 3.
How do standards of College education compare? On average, each year of education adds 7 points. While Canada and Japan, create large gains between College and University, the US creates its largest gains between High School and College. Note, however, that High School graduates in Japan have higher scores than college graduates in Canada and the US and almost as high as University graduates! 9 19.7 25.1 13 0.1
Mean literacy proficiency, by type of occupation, and score difference between workers in skilled and elementary occupations, Canada, USA and Japan Skilled occupations Semi-skilled white collar occupations Semi-skilled blue collar occupations Elementary occupations Difference between skilled and elementary occupations Canada292.3266.0256.5251.041.2 USA292.1265.8252.2239.452.7 Japan310.6296.7285.6280.430.2 Workers in skilled occupations have Level 3 literacy however, workers in skilled occupations in Japan have much higher Average Literacy scores for skilled occupations and white collar occupations These differences affect the attraction of plants and companies to North America and the off-shoring of jobs.
Though the demand for higher levels of skills has been growing in the job market, there has not been much increase in the level of literacy skills between cohorts compared to Korea Average Literacy scores by age bands, Canada and USA 16-24 years 25-34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years 55-65 years Difference between youngest and oldest Canada275.7285.1279.7268.0260.415.4 USA271.5275.5273.4265.9262.98.6 Korea292.9289.5277.5258.6244.148.8
PIAAC provides a large picture view of foundational competencies that can help the college sector to make important decisions based on evidence Direct measures of the stock of skills of the college educated population in a country. Calculation of the premiums gained over high school graduates and under university graduates. Equity - with the performance of college graduates in other regions in a country Benchmarking internationally with 23 other countries. Most EU countries and Australia. Relationship between the proficiencies gained in college in relation to job related skills. The proficiencies of the intake cohort of students. The proficiency requirements by occupational categories as demanded by the market.