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+ Congo River Basin The Role of International Money.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Congo River Basin The Role of International Money."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Congo River Basin The Role of International Money

2 + Outline Hydrology of the basin Resources within the basin Geopolitical background Role of international parties


4 + Hydrology Catchment area: 3.7 M km 2 Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, the Republic of Congo, Angola, Cameroon, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia 2 nd largest in world Length: 3,100 km Discharge: 40,000 m 3 /s Highest potential for hydropower development

5 + Area and Precipitation

6 + Congo Forest 1.6 M km 2 3 million people 400 species of mammals Gorillas Bonobos Elephants 1000 species of birds >10,000 species of plants 3000 found only in this forest 8 World Heritage Sites

7 + Resources Timber, copper, cobalt, coltan, gold, manganese, uranium, oil, and diamonds 64-80% of world’s reserves in coltan, but only 10% of world’s production

8 + Geopolitical Background in DRC 1908: established as a Belgian colony 1960: gained independence Mobutu in power for 32 years 1994: start of civil war 1997: Laurent Kabila came into power 1999: ceasefire signed 2001: Laurent Kabila assassinated Joseph Kabila (son) became the head of state 2002: Pretoria Accord signed Elections in 2006 and 2011 J Kabila won reelection (49%) Carter Center – election lacked credibility >24 people killed and 100,000 people displaced since election

9 + Democratic Republic of Congo Poorest country in the world 71% of population below the poverty line $13.5 B in external debt (86 th in world) 1.4 M internally displaced people (IDP) (2007) Longest deployment of UN Peacekeeping Forces (since 1999) International land disputes with the Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Zambia, and Angola Export partners: China 46.9%, Zambia 23.3%, US 10.4%, Belgium 4.2% Import partners: South Africa 19.2%, China 12.5%, Belgium 9.2%, Zambia 8.8%, Zimbabwe 6.9%, France 5.8%, Kenya 5.8%

10 + Congo River Basin Southern African Development Community (SADC) Water Sector Working to improve data and communication in the region Commission of the Congo-Oubangui-Sangha Basin (CICOS) DRC, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic 2003: ratified the accord creating the organization Emphasis on navigation, then water resource management Interest in diverting water to Chad, but not enough data in Congo Lake Tanganyika Authority (LTA) Burundi, DRC, Tanzania, Zambia Created in 2008 Regional oversight and management of the lake and its resources Agreements among Member States

11 + International Involvement Finland: EUR 100 M SADC Regional Meteorology Project Food and Agriculture Organization of UN AQUASTAT Germany: EUR 2.5 M CICOS Netherlands: EUR 4.7 M WaterNet Trust Sweden: EUR 3 M Water Demand in Southern Africa United Nations Development Program: USD 52.5 M LTA

12 + Role of International Parties “Economic structures favored foreign investment, particularly in the extractive industry, and little had been achieved to empower and build the capacity of citizens.” – WWF report on Cameroon

13 + International Aid to DRC from IMF 5 year average of aid given in US$ MAid by Sector

14 + Type of Financing by IMF

15 + DRC and China Relationship began in 1972 China offers aid through education, hospitals, agriculture, infrastructure Exponential increase in trade since 2004 Sicomines Barter deal arranged in 2008 $9 B in infrastructure for mining concessions in Katanga province (~$50 B) Controversial and opposed by some within DRC and internationally Not enough transparency Favors China too much Worries regarding debt sustainability

16 + Discussion Questions What are some potential issues with different types of foreign aid? How can foreign involvement be beneficial for the people of the DRC? What are some competing interests with development and how can they be resolved? What are some similarities and differences between the Congo and the Amazon?

17 + Not well regulated or enforced Disrupts gorilla habitats Roads allow militants to move more easily More poaching and brushmeat trade from militants and IDPs Can affect carbon cycle and contribute to climate change UNESCO and WWF trying to stop the exploitation of timber but it is a significant export for the region Logging

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