Presentation on theme: "Team logo Electrification and "Publification" of the Transportation Infrastructure Claire Kearns-McCoy, Max Powers, CK Umachi 3.003 Principles of Engineering."— Presentation transcript:
team logo Electrification and "Publification" of the Transportation Infrastructure Claire Kearns-McCoy, Max Powers, CK Umachi 3.003 Principles of Engineering Practice May 10, 2011
team logo Electrification and "Publification" of the Transportation Infrastructure Electric vehicles will become the dominant method of private transportation. Public transportation usage will also increase as population becomes urbanized. Background Issues and Constraints There is a need for reduction in carbon emissions. Electric vehicles have a limited range and require additional electricity production. Public transport must be made more user friendly. Recommended Solution Power electric vehicles using rooftop solar panels and charging stations Improve public transportation infrastructure and incorporate GPS tracking Principles of Engineering Practice 2011 UT-MIST- MIT International Seminar on Materials
team logo Background: Trends in Private Transportation The switch to electric vehicles throughout the world is gaining steam o In the USA, President Obama has vowed to have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. o In Europe, gas vehicles will be banned in 2050. Many major car companies have come out with electric vehicles recently. o Many new, smaller companies have also developed electric vehicles.
team logo Issues The range of electric vehicles is less than that of gasoline powered vehicles. o Improvements in efficiency must be made to increase the range. Switching to electric powered vehicles will increase demand for electricity. o Production must be increased to match demand. o Sustainable energy sources will be needed. Need for reduction in combustion of carbon-based fuels o Societies have made it a priority to reduce their carbon emissions. o Burning carbon creates hazardous emissions. o Carbon-based fuels are a limited resource.
team logo Issues The cost of operation for gasoline powered cars is expected to rise. The cost of operation for electric powered vehicles is expected to decrease. Source: UC Berkley
team logo Recommendations Decrease weight of electric vehicles to increase efficiency and extend range Use solar energy to charge batteries o Some of the necessary power can be generated by photovoltaic cells on the roofs of the vehicles. This also extends range o Supplemental power can be supplied through charging stations powered by photovoltaics.
team logo Analysis (Electric) Based on estimates through 2030 for the number of electric vehicles, we were able to extrapolate through 2050. Estimates are from R.L. Polk and based on the Bass methodology. We estimate that 70% of automobiles will be electric by 2050 based on this projection.
team logo Analysis Each car will need 5-20 square meters of solar panels per day. o This assumes an average of 28 kWh per 100 miles, 30 miles driven per day, and 28% solar cell efficiency. o A typical car can fit 6.5 square meters of solar cells on its roof.
team logo Analysis We estimate that improvements in efficiency will increase the range of electric vehicles to 120 miles per charge. o Current electric vehicles have a range of about 100 miles per charge. o A 25% weight reduction increases efficiency by 20%. o Rooftop solar panels can increase this range by up to 26 miles depending on location and speed.
team logo Consequences and implementation Consequences 70% of automobiles will be electric powered by 2050 Demand for fossil fuels will be drastically decreased Demand for electricity will increase Implementation Charging stations will be located in parking lots Solar panels on the roofs of cars will provide much of the required power Infrastructure and manufacturing capabilities will shift to accommodate electric vehicles
team logo Background: Trends in Public Transportation Currently 12% of people use public transportation to commute. The portion of people living in urban areas is expected to increase 5-8% by 2050. Sustainability will be a key issue for future transportation.
team logo Issues (Public Transportation) Carbon Emissions- " private vehicles emit about 95 percent more carbon monoxide, 92 percent more volatile organic compounds for every passenger mile travelled" -American Enterprise Institute C ongestion Expediency Dealing with an increasing urban population
team logo Recommendations Improving infrastructure, greater carrying capacity, more vehicles. Transit oriented development in urban areas GPS tracking system with LED screens
team logo Analysis UN reports puts urban population at 5 billion by 2040 12% population currently use for commute 15% expected use by 2020 19% expected us by 2050 Expected 3% increase by adding GPS alone In transit oriented development areas, people 5x more likely to use public transportation
team logo Consequences and Implementation Increases sustainability of transportation Up to 13% less carbon emissions if 20% of people use public transportation for commuting Decrease foreign oil dependency Decrease urban highway congestion Depends heavily on local spending, variable increase depending on fund allocation
team logo Consequences 20102020203020402050 Public12%14%15%17%19% Private (Gas)83%84%77%50%24% Private (Electric)1%2%8%33%57% Trends for private and public transportation can be combined We can estimate the percentage of the population using the different methods
team logo CO2 Emmisions Pounds of CO2 per passenger mile Gas cars: 0.9 pounds per passenger mile Electric Vehicles: 0.5 pounds per passenger mile Public Transportation (Buses and Trains): 0.2pounds per passenger mile