Presentation on theme: "Smart Grid & Microgrid R&D"— Presentation transcript:
1 Smart Grid & Microgrid R&D Steve BossartSenior Energy AnalystU.S. Department of EnergyNational Energy Technology LaboratoryMilitary Smart Grids & Microgrids ConferenceMay 1-2, 2012Smart Grid R&D Needs
2 Smart Grid & Microgrid R&D Topics Vision and goalsBackgroundResearch needsStandards and best practicesTechnology developmentModelingAnalysisEvaluation and demonstrationMicrogridList of topicsVision and goals of OE and its R&D programBackground on creation of the R&D needsSpecific R&D needs aligned by these five areas.Standards and best practices to ensure interoperability and cyber protection-Technology developmentModeling, simulation, visualizationAnalytical work - cost and benefits, sensing and control, protection-Evaluation and demonstration – integration of technologies into a smart grid
4 DOE OE MissionMission of Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy ReliabilityLead national efforts to modernize the electric grid;Enhance security and reliability of the infrastructure; andFacilitate recovery from disruptions to energy supplyAccelerate the deployment and integration of advanced communication, control, and information technologies that are needed to modernize the nation‘s electric delivery networkThree divisions in OER&D – modernize gridPermitting, Siting, and Analysis – ensure reliability and securityInfrastructure Security and Energy Restoration – restore energy supplyGoal of R&D is to accelerate the transition to a smart grid by integrating grid data, communications and controls.
5 Grid Modernization Goals The seven functional characteristics lead to achievement of long-term goals of creating a self-healing distribution system for improved reliability and integration of distributed assets including generation and storage, smart appliances enabling demand response, and electric vehicles. About 80-90% of outages are caused by problems in distribution system.2020 targets are 20% improvement in SAIDI (system reliability),over 98% reduction in outage time for critical loads, andOver 20% load factor improvement (Average-to-Peak ratio)
7 Smart Grid & Microgrid R&D Sources Much of this presentation is derived from the DOE OE multiyear R&D plan covering It was originally published in 2010 and an update is under review prior to release.The original smart grid R&D plan was created from discussions held at a smart grid roundtable meeting in December 2009 that included multiple types of stakeholders (e.g., national laboratories, utility commissioners, utilities, vendors). Stakeholders were divided into five R&D groups to focus on particular topics.Guides R&D solicitationsSets prioritiesSets interim goalsMeasures progress
8 Multi-Year Program Plan 2010-2014 Smart Grid R&DMulti-Year Program PlanOriginally published in 2010Smart Grid Roundtable Meeting in December, 2009Multiple stakeholdersR&D GroupsSeptember 2011 updateMuch of this presentation is derived from the DOE OE multiyear R&D plan covering It was originally published in 2010 and an update is under review prior to release.The original smart grid R&D plan was created from discussions held at a smart grid roundtable meeting in December 2009 that included multiple types of stakeholders (e.g., national laboratories, utility commissioners, utilities, vendors). Stakeholders were divided into five R&D groups to focus on particular topics.Guides R&D solicitationsSets prioritiesSets interim goalsMeasures progress
9 Criteria for DOE Smart Grid R&D Plan Hindered by lack of standards or conflict with standardsNot being addressed by industry or Federal R&DLonger-term, high-riskTransformative, high-payoffFeasible within likely Federal budgetFor an R&D need to be included in the DOE OE R&D plan it needs to meet these criteria.Technology that is hindered by lack of standards or conflict with existing standardsNot being addressed already by industry or Federal R&DFocus of Federal R&D is longer term than industry and higher riskResults are R&D are expected to be transformative with a high payoff , if successfulFeasible within budget limitationsTheme is long-term, high-risk R&D on high-impact technologiesMinimize risk of stakeholders in adopting new technologies (utilities, vendors, consumers)Results in transformative changes to the grid- Unlikely to be funded by private sectorLong-term, high-risk R&D in high-impact technologies
10 DOE Planning Process for Microgrid R&D Assembled planning committee with national lab representatives (LBNL, NREL, ORNL, SNL)Formulated microgrid technicalperformance and cost targetsIdentified key microgrid componentsthat could benefit from additional R&DConducted preliminary analysis to determine the baseline and potential research areas
11 Major Cost Components of a Microgrid Energy Resources (30-40%)Switchgear Protection & Transformers (20%)Smart Grid Communications & Controls (10-20%)Site Engineering & Construction(30%)Operations & MarketsEnergy storage; controllable loads; DG; renewable generation; CHPSwitchgear utility interconnection (incl. low-cost switches, interconnection study, protection schemes, and protection studies)Standards & protocols; Control & protection technologies; Real-time signals (openADR); Local SCADA access; Power electronics (Smart Inverters, DC bus)A&E (System design and analysis); System integration, testing, & validationO&M; Market (utility) acceptancePercents in parentheses indicate approximate contribution to the overall microgrid costs.Sub-components highlighted in red and blue were identified as fitting to the OE mission areas and having potential for significant cost reduction by OE Smart Grid R&D Program efforts. The sub-component areas in blue were organized as the three Technical Sessions in breakout group 1 of the DOE Microgrid Workshop; and those in red were organized as the three Technical Sessions in breakout group 2.
12 Development of Microgrid R&D Needs Stakeholder EngagementConvened a Workshop to further define:Baseline performanceAreas of research needsEnd goals (technical/cost targets and their significance)Actionable plan to reach the targets (scope, schedule, participants, milestones)Workshop DetailsAugust 30-31, 2011University of CA, San Diego73 participantsVendors, electric utilities, national labs, universities, research institutes, end users (including military bases, municipalities, and data centers), and consultants
14 Standards & Best Practices Technology Development Modeling Analysis R&D TopicsStandards & Best PracticesTechnology DevelopmentModelingAnalysisEvaluation & DemonstrationsDistribution and consumer systems and their integration with generation and transmission systemsStandards & Best Practices for electrical and communications interconnection, integration, interoperability, conformance test procedures, and operating practices.Technology Development in advanced sensing and measurement, integrated communications and security, advanced components and subsystems, advanced control methods and system topologies, and decision and operations support.Modeling accurately the behavior, performance, and cost of distribution-level smart grid assets and their impacts at all levels of grid operations from generation to transmission and distribution.Analysis of measured data and simulations to better understand the impacts and benefits concerning capacity usage, power quality and reliability, energy efficiency, operational efficiency, and clean technology, as well as economic/business environment and crosscutting goals.Evaluation & Demonstrations of new technologies and methods in terms of performance and conformance
15 Standards & Best Practices Developing, maintaining, and harmonizing national and international standardsInterconnection, interoperability, integration, and cyber securityLegacy and advanced distribution system protection, operations and automationDefining reliability and ancillary service requirementsDefine roles of load serving entities, EMS, aggregators, and ISO/RTOs in marketDeveloping best practices to manage PEV charging including “roaming” locationsDeveloping, maintaining, and harmonizing national and international standards on interconnection, integration, interoperability, and cyber security requirements and conformance test procedures for distributed energy resources.Developing and maintaining legacy and advanced distribution system protection, operations, and automation best practices. Integrating new and old components while ensuring connectivity and interoperability.Developing best practices to allow for improved markets by defining reliability and ancillary service requirementsAncillary services such as reserves, load following, voltage control and frequency regulation, VAR compensation may have different requirements and approach in smart grid environment..Clarify roles of entities within the smart grid, such as load serving entities, aggregators, energy management systems, and independent system operators.Developing best practices to manage PEV charging and ―roaming from one location to another.
16 Standards and Best Practices Some Technical Tasks Interoperability and InterconnectionDevelop use cases to identify requirementsDevelop exploratory and conformance test proceduresDevelop schemes for protection, operation, and automationCyber SecurityIdentify security requirements for all assetsDevelop a security architectureDevelop and validate methods for cyber secure operationMarket and ReliabilityDescribe operating models for power system and marketDevelop clearly defined functional roles for entitiesTechnical scopeInteroperabilityDevelop use cases to identify requirements; assets and their functionsNeed to develop test protocols to confirm interconnection and interoperability- Develop approaches for protection, operation, and automationCyberSecurity requirements- Security architecture- Develop test protocols to validate cyber securityMarketModels to describe operations of power system and operations of market- Define roles for grid entities (ISO/RTO, distribution operators, DR aggregators)
17 Technology Development Sensing & measurementWeather, equipment health, customer devices, …Communications and securityWireless, power line carrier, internet, …Advanced componentsPower electronics, intelligent loads, V2G, G2V, e-storage..Control methodsDistributed control, DA, mixed AC/DC, adaptive protectionDecision and operations supportVisualization, diagnostic & operations, data processingSensing and measurement – Support faster and more accurate sensors to participate in remote monitoring and dynamic pricingWeather monitors, smart meters and AMICustomer – low cost and low power; energy usage and power qualityDistribution - current, voltage, phase angle, real and reactive power flow, GISEquipment health sensorsTemperature sensors for dynamic load ratingCommunications and securitywireless, power line communications, microwave, optical, cellular, internetcyber securityAdvanced ComponentsPower electronics - solid state devices (breakers, transformers, switches, tap changers, relays, reclosers)Intelligent loads; V2G, G2V; E-storage controlsControl methodsDecentralized control, distribution automation, mixed AC/DC systems, adaptive protection and controlDecision and operations supportVisualization, diagnostics and operations support, information processing, customer systems
18 Technology Development “Integration” Integration of DER and DR to reduce peak load and improve efficiencySmart charging PEVsMicrogridCommunications and controlsSmart inverters for renewablesEPRIAdditional areas of technology development- Integrate DG and E-storage with DR to reduce peak load and improve efficiency; proper balance of using assetsSmart charging PEVs in response to price signals and charging requirements- Microgrid integration with main grid, islanding, serve critical loads, proper balance- No single communication or control system is the “best” for all situations- Smart inverters to convert DC to AC for intermittent renewables ; integrate with primary grid
20 Modeling Modeling, simulation, and visualization Planning, design and operationsBehavior, performance, and cost of smart grid assetsImpact on generation and T&DoperationsArea of modeling covers development of analytical tools, simulation tools, and visualization tools.Covers GT&D planning, detailed design, and grid operationsCovers the behavior, performance and cost of smart grid and contribution of specific assetsAnd their impact of generation and T&D operations.
21 ModelingCreate public library of smart grid software (components, controls)Establish benchmark test cases to validate models and software toolsDevelop fast computational algorithms and parallel computing capabilitiesDevelop capability to model impact of smart grid on entire gridDevelop dynamic response modelsContinuous update of distribution systemLink distributed engineering, work order, outage management, and automated mapping modelsIntegrate communications, markets, and renewable resource modelsOpen standards to describe distribution, smart grid, and consumer assetsCreate a public library of smart grid component models, controls, operating strategies, and test cases for the vendor community and utilitiesEstablish benchmark test cases to validate smart grid models and software tools.Expand IEEE distribution test cases (to include smart grid assets and operations.Develop fast computational algorithms and parallel computing capabilities to increase the speed of smart grid models so that they can be embedded in real-time controls and decision support tools.Develop the capability to model impacts of smart grid operations on the entire grid. Develop models of dynamic response of a smart grid on the transmission and generation system.Continuous updates of the distribution system model in distribution engineering tools so that they accurately reflect the current configuration, which will be increasingly dynamic as smart grid technology is deployed.Link distribution engineering models with the work order, outage management, and automated mapping/facilities management/geographic information systems.Develop techniques for integrating communication network models, wholesale market models, and renewable resource modelsSupport development of open standards for describing distribution systems, customer loads, and smart grid components.
23 Analysis Progress and impact of smart grid investments Support effective cyber security, privacy, and interoperability practicesImpact on outage number, duration & extentImpact on power quality and reliabilityImpact on power system planningImpact of T&D automation on variable renewable integrationPotential capacity from DR, DG, and e-storageConsumer studies on acceptance of DR, PEV, storage, energy efficiency, & local generationEvaluate benefits and costBusiness caseAssess the progress of smart grid deployments and investments.Understanding the issues and potential remedies to support effective cyber security, information privacy, and interoperability practices and their acceptance by industry.Provide an analytic basis for the delivery of appropriate levels of power quality and reliability at the various levels of ―smart‖ distribution infrastructure and end-use systems, recognizing the differentiated costs and benefits.Assess the impact of a smart grid on the number, duration, and extent of electricity outages, including cascading events.Evaluate the energy efficiency impact of energy management devices in consumer facilities.Analyzie the ramifications of smart grid capabilities on distribution, transmission, and generation planning.Analyze the impact of transmission & distribution automation on integrating high penetration of variable renewable resources.Determine potential smart grid-facilitated capacity amounts from DR, distributed generation, and improved asset utilization.Conduct consumer studies regarding acceptance of DR, on-site generation, PEVs, storage, and energy efficiency programs.Examine the business case; benefits streams and cost; benefits to utilities, consumers, and society
25 Evaluation and Demonstration Gaps in smart grid functionalityGaps in technology performanceProtocols in evaluating new componentsPerformance and conformance with emerging standardsNew technologies and methods are needed to evaluate and demonstrate performance and compliance with emerging standards and best practices and interoperability requirements. R&D will focus onIdentifying any gaps in smart grid functionality or gaps in performance of existing technologies.Develop protocols to test and evaluate new components and systemsEvaluate testing capabilities in industry, government, and laboratories.
27 List of High-Priority R&D Projects from the DOE Microgrid Workshop Impactful R&D AreasHigh-priority R&D ProjectsStandards and ProtocolsUniversal Microgrid Communications and Control StandardsMicrogrid Protection, Coordination, and SafetySystems Design and Economic AnalysisMicrogrid Multi-objective Optimization FrameworkSystem IntegrationCommon Integration Framework for Cyber Security/Control/Physical ArchitecturesSwitch TechnologiesLegacy Grid-Connection Technologies to Enable Connect/Disconnect from GridRequirements based on Customer and Utility NeedsControl and Protection TechnologiesBest Practices and Specifications for Protection and ControlsReliable, Low-cost ProtectionInverters/ConvertersTopologies & Control Algorithms for Multiple Inverters to Operate in a MicrogridAdvanced Power Electronics TechnologiesThese will be the areas that guide future microgrid R&D FOA.