Presentation on theme: "Information literacy models: from experience to practice Dr Christine Bruce 2007 Associate Professor, Faculty of Information Technology, QUT, Australia."— Presentation transcript:
Information literacy models: from experience to practice Dr Christine Bruce 2007 Associate Professor, Faculty of Information Technology, QUT, Australia
Why are we researching IL? Information literacy transforms Information literacy brings about learning
Our role as information professionals is to provide environments and learning opportunities that enhance information literacy …. help people experience the power of information practices, that are effective in professional, civic and personal life. Bruce, C (2002) Information literacy as a catalyst for educational change.
Five Dimensions of IL Research Bruce (2000) suggests that the territory of IL research may be described in terms of five dimensions 1.The sectoral location of the research (education and the community) 2.Ways of seeing IL (interacting with information) 3.What is being investigated – the research object - (people’s experiences) 4.How the object is being investigated – the research approach 5.Disciplinary influences
What is the object of research? Being information literate – the significance of researching experience Experiences of Information literacy Internet searching Using online information Relationship between IL and learning Making ethical decisions Virtual communities
Survey Phenomenography Critical Incident Technique Self-administered Surveys Mixed Interviews method Case Study Archival research Literature Analysis Grounded Theory Research Methods
The Seven Faces of Information Literacy Key messages There are many ways in which IL can be experienced The importance of IT varies in each experience IL is a social, more than an individual phenomenon There is a strong relationship between IL and learning to learn For full details see : Bruce, C (1997) Seven Faces of Information Literacy, Auslib Press, Adelaide.
KNOWLEDGE BASE INFORMATION AWARENESS SOURCES PROCESSCONTROL WISDOMINSIGHT For full details see : Bruce, C (1997) Seven Faces of Information Literacy, Auslib Press, Adelaide.
First Face : IL experienced as using IT to stay informed and to communicate IT used for information awareness IT helps users stay informed/communicate a social experience – not individual dependent on expertise within a group Bruce, C (1997) Seven Faces of Information Literacy, AUSLIB Press. Information Use Information Scanning Information Technology
Second Face : IL experienced as using Info Sources bibliographic human organisational assistance of intermediaries emphasised Personal skills also valued Information Technology Information Use Information Sources
Third Face : IL experienced as using info Processes linked to problem- solving, decision- making requires personal heuristics a ‘creative art’ Information Technology Information Use Information Process
Fourth Face : IL experienced as controlling information recognising relevant information managing that information making connections between information, projects, people interconnectedness between information and parts of projects Information Technology Information Use Information Control
Fifth Face : IL experienced as constructing knowledge in an unfamiliar area emphasis on learning Developing a personal perspective with knowledge gained dependent on critical thinking Information Technology Information Use (critical analysis) Knowledge Base
Sixth Face : IL experienced as extending knowledge personal knowledge + experience + creative insight/intuition mysterious experience develops new knowledge/ approaches to tasks/novel solutions Information Technology Information Use (intuition) Knowledge Base
Seventh Face : IL experienced as using information wisely personal quality values and ethics combined with knowledge information used for the benefit of others Information Technology Information Use (values) Knowledge Base
The Net Lenses Model Key messages University students have different approaches to searching the internet which correlate with their ways of discerning the net environment Introducing reflective processes can change what they see or don’t see thus improving search capability Systems, tools, learning objects and assessment experiences can be designed to focus attention on relevant parts of the envronment For full details see Edwards, S. (2006) Panning for Gold: IL and The Net Lenses Model, Adelaide, AUSLIB Press.
Reflective Model for Learning to Search the Internet (Edwards and Bruce, 2000)
The Outcome Space FOR MORE INFO... Edwards, S.L. & Bruce, C.S. (2002) Needles, haystacks, filters and me: the IT confidence dilemma. Refereed Conference Paper presented at Lifelong Learning Conference 2nd: Yeppoon, Central Queensland, Australia, 16-19 June 2002. pp. 165-171. ISBN: 187 6780 19 3
Category 1: Information Searching is finding a needle in a haystack Books including Textbooks & Readings Search Engine Favourite Limited few used Search Window including Search Engines and all Library Resources People including Friends, peers and Library Staff Search Tool Structure including Search Options, Advanced search features and help Logical Operators or Boolean Use of terms like “and” “or” and “not” Wildcard Use including truncation Information Quality Primary or Secondary sources of information Search Strategies Need to plan, reflect and refine Other Search Engines The Multitude of them Information Environment Including structure and layout Little or no distinction between library catalogues and library databases Synonyms Use of alternative terms and even spell checking SEARCH TOPIC
Category 2: Information Searching is finding a way through the maze Basic Search Strategy Search Engines Still prefer favourites Library Sources including Books, Search tools, catalogue and databases People including Friends, peers and Library Staff Tool Structure including Search Options, Advanced search features and help Logical Operators or Boolean Use of terms like “and” “or” and “not” Wildcard Use including truncation Information Quality Primary or Secondary sources of information Refined Search Strategies Reflection begins Other Internet Databases Including library or other public domain databases Information Environment Including structure and layout Little or no distinction between library catalogues and library databases Synonyms Use of alternative terms and even spell checking Topic & Search Process
Category 3: Information Searching is using the tools as a filter Refined Search Strategies Search Engines Library Sources People Advanced Search and help Logical Operators or Boolean Wildcard Use including truncation Primary or Secondary sources of information Information Quality Internet Databases Information Environment structure and layout Synonym Use spell checking Other Database Vendors Dialog, CITEC, etc. Reflection Term Analysis Use of Dictionary, & Thesauri Domain Searching TOPIC Search Tool Structure
Category 4: Information Searching is panning for gold Search Refining Process Search Engines Library Sources People Advanced Search and help Logical Operators or Boolean Wildcard Use including truncation Primary or Secondary sources Information Quality Internet Databases Information Environment structure and layout Synonym Use spell checking Other Database Vendors Dialog, CITEC, etc. Reflection Use of Dictionary & Thesauri Term Analysis Domain Searching TOPIC Info Quality
Reflective online information use model – Hilary Hughes, Christine Bruce & Sylvia Edwards Lifelong Learning Conference, Yeppoon (2006) REFLECT Critiquing information & Constructing new knowledge USE INFORMATION CREATIVELY & ETHICALLY Gaining novel insights Using information wisely Constantly changing online information universe PLAN Scanning & Sourcing information RECORD Controlling information ACT Processing information
Six Frames for IL Education Key messages IL education is experienced differently The different frames through which IL education may be experienced can be described in terms of six dimensions Educators and learners in the same context may experience IL education differently Educators and learners in the same context will have preferred primary and secondary frames For full details see Andretta, S (Ed) ( in press, 2007) Challenge and Change: IL for the 21 st century, AUSLIB Press, Adelaide.
Six Frames for IL Education (Bruce, Edwards, Lupton, 2006) Content Frame Users focus on what people should know about IL Competence Frame Users focus on what people should be able to do Learning to Learn Frame Users focus on what it means to think like an IL person Personal Relevance Frame Users focus on what IL can do for them Social Impact Frame Users focus on social reform Relational Frame Users focus on interaction with info or other phenomena
CONTENT FRAME View of ILIL is knowledge about the world of information View of InformationInformation exists apart from the user; can be transmitted Curriculum focusWhat should learners know about the subject, about IL? View of learning and teaching Teacher is an expert- transmits knowledge. Learning is a change in how much is known View of contentWhat needs to be known has primacy. All relevant content must be covered View of AssessmentAssessment is objective. Measures how much has been learned; ranks student via exams
The Content Frame Users of the Content Frame usually adopt a discipline orientation. Their focus is on what learners should know about IL A typical example in relation to IL education might be teaching IL sessions within a discipline based subject and providing lectures on a key set of information tools and techniques. This might be followed by a test of recall.
COMPETENCY FRAME View of ILIL is a set of competencies or skills View of InformationInformation contributes to the performance of the relevant capability Curriculum focusWhat should learners be able to do? View of learning and teaching Teachers analyse tasks into knowledge and skills; learners become competent by following predetermined pathways. View of contentContent is derived from observation of skilful practitioners View of assessmentAssessment determines what level of skill has been achieved
The Competence Frame Users of the Competency Frame usually adopt a behavioural or performance orientation. They ask what learners should be able to do, and at what level of competence? A typical example in IL education might be the design of sequenced instruction to teach the use of an electronic tool; supplemented by testing to determine the level of skill that has been attained by the learner at specified points in the learning process
LEARNING TO LEARN FRAME View of ILIL is a way of learning View of InformationInformation is subjective – internalised and constructed by learners Curriculum focusWhat does it mean to think like an (IL) professional in the relevant field? View of teaching and learning Teachers facilitate collaborative learning; learners develop conceptual structure and ways of thinking and reasoning View of contentContent is chosen for mastering important concepts and fostering reflective practice View of assessmentComplex, contextual problems are proposed. Self or peer assessment is encouraged
Learning to learn frame Users of the learning-to-learn frame (Figure 5) usually adopt a constructivist orientation. They ask what it means to think like an information literate professional, for example an architect, engineer, journalist or landscape designer A typical example might be setting a real life problem in which the need to access, evaluate and use information from a range of sources is central and appropriately supported.
PERSONAL RELEVANCE FRAME View of ILIL is learned in context and is different for different people/groups View of InformationValuable information is useful to the learners Curriculum focusWhat good is IL to me? View of teaching and learning Teaching focuses on helping learners find motivation. Learning is about finding personal relevance and meaning View of contentProblems, cases, scenarios selected to reveal relevance and meaning View of assessmentTypically portfolio based – learners self assess
Personal relevance frame Users of the Personal Relevance frame usually adopt an experiential orientation. In relation to IL education they need learners to develop a sense of what IL can do for them. A typical example might be participating in a community project that required engagement with relevant information services and providers; then subsequently reflecting on the experience and what was learned about both the subject and information use in that context.
SOCIAL IMPACT FRAME View of ILIL issues are important to society View of Information Information is viewed within social contexts Curriculum focusHow does IL impact society? View of teaching and learning Teachers role is to challenge the status quo. Learning is about adopting perspectives that will encourage social change. View of contentReveals how IL can inform widespread or important social issues or problems View of assessment Designed to encourage experience of the impact of IL
Social impact Users of this frame usually adopt a social reform orientation. Their interest is in how IL impacts society, in how it may help communities inform significant problems. A typical example might involve focussing learners’ attention on various issues and values associated with problems surrounding the Digital Divide, and proposing tasks related to policy, technology or training designed to assist in bridging that divide.
RELATIONAL FRAME View of ILIL is a complex of different ways of interacting with information View of Information Information may be experienced as objective, subjective or transformational Curriculum focusBringing about awareness of the critical ways of seeing or experiencing View of teaching and learning Teachers bring about particular ways of seeing specific phenomena; learning is coming to see the world differently View of contentExamples selected to help students discover new ways of seeing. Critical phenomena for learning must be identified. AssessmentDesigned to reveal ways of experiencing
Relational Frame Users of this frame are oriented towards the ways in which learners are aware of IL or specific relevant phenomena associated with IL. They are interested in designing experiences that help learners discern more powerful ways of seeing the phenomena in question. A typical example might involve helping students learn to search the internet by designing experiences that focus their attention on previously undiscerned aspects of the experience
What are the challenges of environments where teaching and learning and IL are seen differently? How can we use an appreciation of different ways of seeing to progress the practice of IL education?
The Sense of Control Model A virtual community for people with long-term, physical disabilities (Tilley) TILLEY, C. Aim: to develop a theoretical framework for a virtual community for a specific group of people, that is, people with long-term, physical disabilities. Method: Grounded theory - theory that is developed inductively from a corpus of data Outcomes: The major result of this study was the development of a theoretical model or framework for a virtual community for people with long-term physical disabilities that may be consulted for use by stakeholders whenever such a virtual community is proposed. Identification of a broad range of recommendations for discussion For full details see Tilley, Bruce, Hallam and Hills (2006) Information Research, 11, 3. For full details see Tilley, Bruce, Hallam and Hills (2006) Information Research, 11, 3.
The Virtual Community Model Key messages A ‘sense of control’ is the foundation element of virtual communities for the disabled. The key domains in which persons with disabilities participate include : Education, Fantasy, Information, Interest, Relationship, Transaction Key barriers include costs, the need for assistive equipment and technological training Key facilitators of access are information and IT literacy
6 Types of E- communities: A Model of Virtual Community for Persons with Disabilities Christine Tilley, PhD, QUT, 2007.
Phenomenon: a sense of control CategoriesProperties EducationE-learning, capacity building, information exchange FantasyVirtual – activity, community, family, living, reality Information E-searching, equality, edn, entertainment, leisure Interest Disability rights, leadership, moral purpose, social justice Relationship Community role, peer support, advocacy Transaction E-commerce, employment, investment, shopping, bill paying
From experience to practice The journey of commitment to IL involves walking a path that starts with understanding the nature and character of information literacy then shifts To understanding how to bring about IL
We know from uncovering people’s experiences that fostering information literacy is about more than teaching skills and capabilities. It is about fostering the experiences required for engaging confidently in new information practices It is also about scaffolding programs and systems to help people as they go about their information practices.
Acknowledgements With thanks to LILAC for inviting this paper Colleagues from QUT who have contributed to IL Research – Sylvia Edwards, Mandy Lupton, Hilary Hughes, Christine Tilley, Helen Partridge, Camille McMahon, Natalie Cuffe, Helmut Klaus and others AUSLIB Press for so kindly disseminating the results of key projects