Presentation on theme: "Universal Declaration of Human Rights The origins."— Presentation transcript:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The origins
Introduction The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General AssemblyUnited Nations General Assembly 10 December 1948 Palais de Chaillot, Paris Palais de Chaillot
Why did it come about? The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.Second World War Ruins of the Town of Cassino, Italy, April 1944
Influenced by… The declaration was influenced by President Franklin D. Roosevelt's speech to the United States Congress in 1941 championing the four freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom from fear and freedom from want. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5iHK trirjlY
Franklin Roosevelt 6 th Jan 1941 In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression -- everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way -- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want, which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants -- everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear, which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor -- anywhere in the world.
In other words… The four freedoms Roosevelt outlines are freedom… of s_____________ of r_____________ from p____________ from f_____________
What’s in it? It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. Cover of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations"
What’s in it? It defines the fundamental rights of individuals, and encourages all governments to protect these rights.
Examples of articles Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non- self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3 Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Drafting Canadian John Peters Humphrey was called upon by the United Nations Secretary-General to work on the project and became the Declaration's principal drafter.John Peters HumphreyUnited Nations Secretary-General
Different languages The UN has translated the document into over three hundred languages and dialects. This audiobook includes readings in 21 languages.
Australia’s contribution? Background: As the Second World War draws to a close world leaders gather at San Francisco to discuss the establishment of the United Nations. The UN replaces the League of Nations, which was set up after the First World War to foster international cooperation. Mini biography: Born 1894, NSW, Australia. 1918 - Evatt is admitted to the Sydney bar. 1925 - He joins the Australian Labor Party, entering the NSW State Parliament as the member of the Legislative Assembly. 1930 - Evatt leaves state politics and is appointed a justice of the High Court of Australia. 1940 - He resigns from the High Court and enters federal politics. 1941 - Labor wins the election. Prime Minister John Curtin appoints Evatt as attorney-general and minister for external affairs. Herbert Vere Evatt
‘The Australian pledge’ 1945 - He is a member of the San Francisco Conference which draws up the Charter of the United Nations.Charter of the United Nations During the Charter negotiations he fights for the rights of smaller powers and advocates that the UN should have the power to effect social and economic reform and protect human rights. Article 56, which calls on member states to work toward "higher standards of living, full employment and conditions of economic and social progress and development," becomes known as 'the Australian pledge'.
Further involvement The Charter is signed on 26 th June by the representatives of the 50 countries attending the conference. The United Nations officially comes into existence on 24 th October, when the charter is ratified by the majority of its 50 signatories. 1946-49 - Evatt serves as deputy prime minister to Ben Chifley. 1946 - He leads the Australian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference and the Australian delegations to the UN in 1946, 1947 and 1948. 1948 - He is elected president of the UN General Assembly at its third session. He remains the only Australian to have held this post. Evatt presides over the UN's adoption and proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10 th December, followed by the Geneva and Genocide Conventions.Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1949 - Labor loses the federal election. The remainder of Evatt's parliamentary life is spent in opposition.