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Chapter 1: History and Approaches. Stone Age humans carving holes through the skull to release evil spirits.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: History and Approaches. Stone Age humans carving holes through the skull to release evil spirits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1: History and Approaches


3 Stone Age humans carving holes through the skull to release evil spirits

4 1879- set up the first psychological laboratory near university at Leipzig, Germany Trained subjects in introspection asked them to accurately record their cognitive reactions to sample stimuli Developed the theory of structuralism the mind operates by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations

5 1890- published the first psychology textbook “The Principles of Psychology” Examined how the structures Wundt identified function in our lives (functionalism)


7  Principles The whole is more than the sum of its parts Argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures Tried to examine a person’s total experience the way we experience the world is more than an accumulation of perceptual experiences


9 Revolutionizes psychology with his psychoanalytic theory Believed he discovered the unconscious mind ​ builds up through repression ​ To understand human thought and behavior, we must examine the unconscious mind through: ​ dream analysis word association psychoanalytic theory  ​​ Definitions of Terms ​ Unconscious mind ​ a part of our mind over which we do not have conscious control ​​ determines, in part, how we think and behave ​ Repression ​ the pushing down into the unconscious the events and feelings that our conscious mind can’t handle


11  1920s-1960s ​ Dominant school of thought in the field of psychology

12 Psychologists should look only at behavior and the causes of it ​ stimuli (environmental events) responses (physical reactions)  NOT consciousness

13 ​ Studied Pavlov For psychology to be a science, it must limit itself to observable phenomena Behaviorist

14 Expanded behaviorism to include reinforcement Reinforcement ​​​ environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses


16 Stressed individual choice and free will ​​ We choose most of our behaviors ​ these choices are guided by psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs ​ The theories are not easily tested by the scientific method  ​ Figures ​ Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Carl Rogers (1902-1987)  ​ Deterministic Behaviorists ​ Contrast with humanists All behaviors are caused by past conditioning

17  Characteristics ​ Holds all of Freud’s beliefs ​​ Very controversial

18  Principles ​ Explain human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes Human cognition and reactions ​ caused by genes, hormones, neurotransmitters

19  Principles ​ Examine human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection ​ traits that benefit survival get passed on  ​ “Social biology”

20  Principles ​ Explain human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning Look strictly at observable behaviors and what reactions organisms get in response to them

21  Principles ​ Examine human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events The rules that we use to view the world are important to understanding why we think and behave the way we do

22  Principles ​ Look at how our thought and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures Emphasize the influence culture has on the way we think and act

23  Principles ​ Claims that no one perspective has all the answers to the variety of human thought and behavior Each perspective has valid explanations

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