TABLE OF COTENT MEANING EPIDIOMOLOGY CAUSES SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS EFFECTS OR IMPLICATIONS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT REFERENCES
What Is Depression? “ Depression is a chronic mental disorder characteriszed by feeling of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach; accompanieng sings include psychomotor retardation (or less frequently agitation), withdrawal from social contact, and vegetative states such as loss of appetite and insomnia” - MediLexicon’s Medical Dictionary
What Is Depression? Everyone occasionally feels blue or sad. But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days. When you have depression, it interferes with daily life and causes pain for both you and those who care about you. Depression is a common but serious illness. Many people with a depressive illness never seek treatment. But the majority, even those with the most severe depression, can get better with treatment.
There are several forms of depressive disorders. Major depression,—severe symptoms that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy life. An episode can occur only once in a person’s lifetime, but more often, a person has several episodes. Persistent depressive disorder—depressed mood that lasts for at least 2 years. A person diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder may have episodes of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms, but symptoms must last for 2 years. Other forms of depression are;1)psychotic depression 2)Postpartum depression 3)Seasonal affective disorder.
Bipolar disorderBipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is not as common as major depression or persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changes—from extreme highs (e.g., mania) to extreme lows (e.g., depression).
EPIDEMIOLOGY Depression is a major cause of morbidity worldwide.It is believed to currently affect approximately 298 million people as of 2010 (4.3% of the global population).morbidity People are most likely to suffer their first depressive episode between the ages of 30 and 40, and there is a second, smaller peak of incidence between ages 50 and 60. The risk of major depression is increased with neurological conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis, and during the first year after childbirth. It is also more common after cardiovascular illnesses, and is related more to a poor outcome than to a better one. Studies conflict on the prevalence of depression in the elderly, but most data suggest there is a reduction in this age group. Depressive disorders are more common to observe in urban than in rural population and the prevalence is in groups with stronger socioeconomic factors i.e. homelessnessstrokeParkinson's disease
Theories of Depression There are many theories about the causes of depression. The social learning theory suggests that lack of positive reinforcement from others may lead to negative self-evaluation and a poor outlook for the future. The psychoanalytic theory suggests that a significant loss (such as of a parent) or a withdrawal of affection in childhood (whether real or perceived) may lead to depression in later life. Interpersonal theory emphasizes the importance of social connections for good mental health. Other theories suggest that unrealistic expectations of oneself and others and loss of self-esteem are essential components leading to depression.
Abuse. Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can cause depression later in life. Certain medications. Some drugs, such as Accutane (used to treat acne), the antiviral drug interferon-alpha, and corticosteroids, can increase your risk of depression. Conflict. Depression in someone who has the biological vulnerability to develop depression may result from personal conflicts or disputes with family members or friends. Death or a loss. Sadness or grief from the death or loss of a loved one, though natural, may increase the risk of depression. Genetics. A family history of depression may increase the risk. It's thought that depression is a complex trait that may be inherited across generations, although the genetics of psychiatric disorders are not as simple or straightforward as in purely genetic diseases such as Huntington's chorea or cystic fibrosis. CAUSES
Major events. Even good events such as starting a new job, graduating, or getting married can lead to depression. So can moving, losing a job or income, getting divorced, or retiring. Other personal problems. Problems such as social isolation due to other mental illnesses or being cast out of a family or social group can lead to depression. Serious illnesses. Sometimes depression co-exists with a major illness or is a reaction to the illness. Substance abuse. Nearly 30% of people with substance abuse problems also have major or clinical depression.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Persistent sad, anxious, or "empty" feelings Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness Irritability, restlessness Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex Fatigue and decreased energy Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping Overeating, or appetite loss Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment.
EFFECTS OR IMPLICATIONS Weight gain Fatigue Pain Self-pity Insomia Unexplained memory loss Tremors Suicidal thoughts
People with depressive illnesses do not all experience the same symptoms. The severity, frequency, and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness. NOTE
DIAGNOSIS BIOLOGICALLY; Medication or medical conditions, such as viruses and thyroid disorder can cause depression FAMILY HISTORY; getting the families past history on depression if it is heriditary PATIENTS HISTORY; Discuss history on patients signs and symptoms ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE; Ask patients if he has been abusing alcohol and drugs lately SEVERE MEDICAL CONDITIONS; MEDICAL CONDITIONS LIKE HIV/AIDS, diabetes,heart disease can all cause depression.
TREATMENT ANTIDEPRESSANT; They work on brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, on the Serotonin or norepinephrine and dopamine Examples are ; serotonin uptake inhibitors venlafaxine ( effexor),duoloxitine (cymbalta) Trycyclics is an old antidepressant PSYCHOTHERAPY ;simply talk therapy ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY BRAIN STIMULATION THERAPY
VIDEO http://www.webmd.com/depres sion/depression-tv/default.htm