PREVALENCE ANXIETYDEPRESSION 16+ Million Adults in the U.S. have anxiety disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder affects 3-8% of the US population The condition that most often coexists with another psychiatric condition; up to 90% of depressed patients experience symptoms of anxiety. Nearly ½ of all cases begin in childhood or adolescence. Women are nearly 2x as likely to be affected as men. It is believed that 2-7% of the U.S. population may suffer from a depressive disorder within a 1 yr. period, though 10% or more of the U.S. population experiences symptoms of depression While experts believe 80% of those experiencing depressive disorders can be helped, more do not receive help than do.
DEFINITION ANXIETYDEPRESSION A Longer-than-usual period of excessive worry and anxiety (more than 6 months) which a person finds difficult to control. A diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder requires the presence of at least 3 of the following symptoms (with at least some symptoms present for more days than not for the past 6 months.) A mood disorder characterized by several symptoms which differ in length and depth from normal sadness or grief. Two main sources of depression: psychological and biological. The result is the same no matter what the origin is: an imbalance of brain chemicals that regulate our well-being.
SYMPTOMS ANXIETYDEPRESSION Muscle tension Restlessness or feeling on edge Being easily fatigued Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank Irritability Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, or restless, unsatisfying sleep) Muscle tension may cause patients to report “feeling shaky” and may experience trembling, twitching, and muscle aches or soreness. Depression, often unrecognized in men, has a wide range of symptoms. At least one of the first two must be present for a diagnosis. Feeling depressed, irritable or angry almost every day Losing interest in pleasurable activities or hobbies Talking of death or suicide Talking very negatively or being excessively critical Acting recklessly or without concern for others
SYMPTOMS ANXIETYDEPRESSION Somatic anxiety symptoms are common and may include the following: Dry mouth Clammy hands Sweating Nausea or diarrhea Urinary frequency Difficulty swallowing Exaggerated startled responses Behaving violently and picking fights Abusing alcohol or drugs Withdrawing from family and friends Losing interest in work or school Talking suddenly about separation or divorce Losing the ability to concentrate Eating too much or too little Sleeping too much or too little
TREATMENT ANXIETYDEPRESSION The most effective treatment combines medication and psychotherapy. Treatment utilizing medication therapy is initially a 6- 12 month course of therapy, but some research suggests a longer course of use, even lifelong. Since Anxiety is our body’s way of warning us of impending danger, Anxiety and Stress are often used as interchangeable terms. Stress is our body’s way of responding to demands placed on us. Anxiety is stressful; stress may cause us to feel anxious. The most effective treatment for depression is believed to be a combination of medication and psychotherapy. The most commonly prescribed antidepressants are called SSRI’s, which work to increase serotonin levels in the brain. Stress is the main factor involved in depressions that are primarily psychologically driven. The most common type of stress that leads to depression is some type of trauma or loss. Biological bases of depression include hormonal causes, certain physical illness, and the genetic predisposition of an individual to experience depression.
MEDICATION ANXIETYDEPRESSION Some of the more common drugs approved to treat Anxiety Disorders include: BUSPAR, EFFEXOR, PAXIL (for Panic Disorder and Social Phobia). Prozac, Luvox, and Anaframil (for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), and Zoloft (for all the above and Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder). The most effective SSRI’s are EFFEXOR, LUVOX, PAXIL, PROZAC, AND ZOLOFT. The generic names of these and other effective medications are called: fluvoxamine, sertraline, bupropion, fluoxetine, and paroxetine. The older generation of antidepressant medications – tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and MAOIs are effective but have more side effects and dietary restrictions.
PSYCHOTHERAPY ANXIETYDEPRESSION Cognitive therapy directly addresses patients’ hypothesized cognitive distortions. Behavioral therapy addresses somatic symptoms directly through techniques that gradually expose patients to a frightening stimulus. Cognitive-behavioral therapy teaches patients to understand their thinking patterns so they can react differently to anxiety-provoking situat ions. Three types of short-term psychotherapies have proven to be effective in the treatment of depression. Cognitive therapy focuses on changing the cognitive distortions that may contribute to depression. Interpersonal therapy addresses current interpersonal problems to foster changes in relationships that may have caused depression. Behavior therapy concentrates on changing maladaptive behavior patterns that may perpetuate depression.