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Fossil Fuels: Their advantages, disadvantages and future

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Presentation on theme: "Fossil Fuels: Their advantages, disadvantages and future"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fossil Fuels: Their advantages, disadvantages and future
Geoffrey Thyne Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute University of Wyoming

2 Modern Civilization

3 World Energy Demand In 1999, with less than 5 % of the world's population, the US generated 30 % of the world's GDP (Gross Domestic Product), consumed 25 % of the world's energy, and emitted 25 % of the world's carbon dioxide." 3

4 From John Lavelle – GE Gasification

5 From John Lavelle – GE Gasification

6 Energy Sources Fossil fuels Nuclear Solar Wind Efficiency

7 US Energy Sources and Sinks

8 Fossil Fuels Oil – liquid hydrocarbon phase formed during burial between 70 and 120C from kerogen. Natural Gas – hydrocarbons that are gaseous at earth surface conditions (C1-C4) and formed by thermal degradation of kerogen or oil, or by microbial action near surface. Coal – Solid phase hydrocarbon formed from organic matter deposited in fresh water shallow environments (swamps).

9 Fossil Fuels Pluses and Minuses
Highly efficient fuels with good energy density and energy return. Large and mature infrastructure. Major liquid reserves are not domestic. Ultimately limited amount. May have reached or are reaching peak oil. Still don’t have clean coal. 9

10 World Energy Reserves/Production

11 For electricity, America can become self-sufficient since 76% is generated domestically from US-based coal (50%), nuclear (19%) and hydro-power (7%).

12 Why are liquid hydrocarbons so desirable? Energy Density

13 Why are liquid hydrocarbons so desirable? Energy Payback

14 Resource Triangle Unconventional Conventional Reservoirs
Small volumes that are easy to develop Improved technology Increased pricing Unconventional Large volumes difficult to develop

15 Liquid Fuels Almost all liquid petroleum (oil) is refined producing liquid and solid products such as gasoline, jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks and asphalt. Almost all liquids are used for transportation (gasoline and diesel).

16 Conventional Oil and Gas

17 World Oil Production

18 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2008
Proved oil reserves BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2008 18

19 But - transportation (auto, truck, aircraft, military), plastics and food energy demands are nearly 100% dependent on oil

20 Gaseous Fuels Most natural gas is used in home heating, electrical generation and petrochemical synthesis. So is compressed for transportation (LPG). The major current sources are conventional petroleum fields. The major future sources will be unconventional sources (coal beds, tight sandstones and shale). 20

21 Production of Coal Bed Gas
Groundwater is removed from shallow coal beds to release natural gas (methane). Production of water is much higher (10-100X) than traditional gas wells (400 bbl. water = 100 MCF) Capacity of traditional water disposal method (re-injection) is limited

22 Shale Gas

23 Coal – the solid hydrocarbon
6.2 billion tons annually (global) 75% is burned to produce electricity Distribution is fairly uniform on global scale

24 Coal Formed when organic-rich sediments were buried to form peat
Further burial creates more carbon–rich forms Lignite or brown coal, fuel only Sub-bituminous, fuel Bituminous, dense, black, fuel and coke Anthracite, glossy black, heating

25 Using Coal Coal Carbon Based Products Electrical Generation
Standard Pulverized Coal Plant Coal Gasification IGCC Coal Plant Ammonia Fertilizer Natural Gas Liquids

26 Coal Emissions of toxic products
Nitrogen produces nitric acid (HNO3), NOX Sulfur produces SO2, sulfuric acid (H2SO4), SOX Major metal is mercury (Hg) Produces Flyash as by-product of combustion

27 Using Coal Large domestic resource Infrastructure in place
Carbon tax will increase electricity costs Will need “clean coal” – capture and dispose of C, N, S and Hg (Future Gen)

28 Demand for Energy Will Continue to Rise Oil and gas provide about two-thirds of energy consumed
Quadrillion Btu I based the percentages on EIA report numbers Oil 40% Year DOE EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, Figure 2

29 Future of Petroleum Industry
Development of unconventional resources (heavy oils, tar sands, gas, oil shale, coal-to-liquids) Broad implementation of EOR/IOR Big companies are diversifying into other energy sources 29

30 Questions?

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