Presentation on theme: "ENERGY: Fossil Fuels Primary and Secondary Energy Sources Oil Production, Economics, and Impacts Coal and Other Fossil Fuels Energy Conservation (use less."— Presentation transcript:
ENERGY: Fossil Fuels Primary and Secondary Energy Sources Oil Production, Economics, and Impacts Coal and Other Fossil Fuels Energy Conservation (use less more efficiently)
History of How the Work Got Done Human Labor (Slaves) Domestic animals Wind and water Steam (ships and locomotives) Gasoline (internal combustion followed by turbine engine) Nuclear
Energy Consumption in the USA Sequence of use –Wood –Coal –Oil –Natural gas –Water (hydro) –Nuclear power –Solar & Wind (?)
Match Dominant Primary With Secondary Energy Sources Primary –oil-based fuels –natural gas –coal –nuclear power –more than one of the above Secondary –transportation –industrial processes –heating and cooling spaces –generation of electrical power
How Fossil Fuels Are Formed Millions of years of …. 1) photosynthesis exceeding respiration (decomposition). 2) detritus accumulation. 3) burial of detritus. 4) pressure & heat (metamorphosis).
Hubbart Oil Production Predictions Oil production follows a bell-shaped curve and will peak around 2010. U.S. Oil production would peak (1970s) Dependence on OPEC oil will increase
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Increased or Decreased Since the 1970s? Consumption of fuels derived from oil Discoveries of new oil in the united states Production of oil in the united states The gap between production and consumption United States dependence on foreign oil
Increased or Decreased Because of Higher Cost of Oil Imports? Rate of exploratory drilling and discovery of oil. Renewed production from old oil fields. Efforts toward fuel conservation. Consumption. Development of alternative energy sources. Dependence on foreign oil.
Who Has The Oil? Proven Reserves in Billions of Barrels RegionReserves North America75.7 South and Central America79.1 Europe20.2 Former Soviet Countries57.0 Middle East676.4 Africa67.6 Far East and Oceania42.3 Total1018.3
Foreign Oil Dependence Problems: Variations in cost of purchases Threat of supply disruptions Limitations of nonrenewable resource Impacts: Pollution of oceans Coastal oil spills Trade imbalances Military actions
Why Was Persian Gulf War Fought? To free the people of Kuwait? To protect Kuwait oil fields from Iraq? To drive up domestic oil prices? To force OPEC to come to terms on oil prices?
Electrical Power From Burning Coal Advantages or Disadvantages? Pollution from secondary energy source Pollution from primary energy source Habitat alterations Environmental effects of mining
Environmental problems with coal… increasing CO2 levels leads to global warming coal combustion produces more CO2 than oil or natural gas acid rain associated with burning high- sulfur coal acid drainage from coal mines (sulfur exposed to oxygen/water > sulfuric acid) surface (“strip”) mining damage
More than 70% of coal derived by surface mining (strip-mining) Remove over-burden (rocks/soil) first 90% of coal can be removed if relatively flat terrain