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12-1 Planning for Information Technology and Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "12-1 Planning for Information Technology and Systems."— Presentation transcript:


2 12-1 Planning for Information Technology and Systems

3 12-2 IT Planning A Critical Issue for Business The evolution of IT planning Issues in IT planning A four-stage model of IT planning

4 12-3 The Evolution of IT Planning Charge-out Cost-benefit analysis IT steering committee Strategic IT plan Application portfolio

5 12-4 Issues in IT Planning Aligning the IT plan Design IT architecture Allocation IT resources Completion on time and within budget

6 12-5

7 12-6 Strategic Information Planning Business systems planning (BSP) Stages of growth Ends / means (E/M) analysis Critical success factors (CSF) Application portfolio

8 12-7 Nolan’s Stages of IS Growth Initiation Expansion Control Integration Data administration Maturity

9 12-8

10 12-9 Ends / Means Analysis Ends specification Means specification Efficiency measures Effectiveness measures

11 12-10

12 12-11 Information Requirements Analysis The goal of the second stage of the model, the information requirement analysis, is to ensure that the various information systems, databases, and networks can be integrated to support decision making and operations.

13 12-12 Information Requirements Analysis Conducting a requirements analysis Using the requirements analysis for planning Resource allocation

14 12-13 Conducting a Requirements Analysis Define underlying organizational systems Develop subsystem matrix Define and evaluate information requirements for organizational subsystems Define major information categories and map interviews into them Develop information matrix

15 12-14 Using the Requirements Analysis for Planning Identify high payoff categories Provide an architecture

16 12-15 Resource Allocation Resource allocation consists of developing hardware, software, data communications, facilities, personnel, and financial plans needed to execute the master development plan as defined in the requirements analysis.

17 12-16 Planning Information Technology Architectures An IT architecture consists of the combination of hardware, software, data, personnel, and telecommunications elements within an organization, along with procedures to employ them.

18 12-17 Planning Information Technology Architectures Centralized architecture Noncentralized computing Client / server architecture IT infrastructure considerations Choosing among architecture options End-user computing architecture issues Reengineering legacy systems

19 12-18 Centralized Architecture

20 12-19 Noncentralized Architecture Noncentralized computing architectures are either decentralized or distributed.

21 12-20 Decentralized Computing Decentralized computing breaks centralized computing into functionally equivalent parts, with each part essentially a smaller, centralized subsystem.

22 12-21 Distributed Computing Distributed computing breaks centralized computing into many computers that may not be (and usually are not) functionally equivalent.

23 12-22 Client / Server Architecture Client Server Specialization Client / server responsibilities

24 12-23 Client A client is generally agreed to be any system or process that can request and make use of data, services, or other systems provided by the server.

25 12-24 Server A server is generally agreed to be any system or process that provides data, services, or access to other systems for clients, most often for multiple clients simultaneously (as a shared resource).

26 12-25 IT Infrastructure Considerations Reach Range

27 12-26

28 12-27 Choosing Among Options Business goals Managerial / technological issue Centralized computing Distributed computing Blending centralized and distributed computing

29 12-28 End-User Computing Architecture Issues Key issue: to provide architecture support for a division of responsibilities agreed on by IS and user groups

30 12-29 Reengineering Legacy Systems Reverse engineering Upsizing BPR

31 12-30 Further Issues in IT Planning Guidelines for IT planning Strategic planning Requirements analysis Resource allocation Selecting methodologies

32 12-31 Managerial Issues Importance Organizing for planning Fitting the IT architecture to the organization IT architecture planning IT policy Ethical and legal issues

33 12-32 Copyright  1999 John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner in unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Son, Inc. Adopters of the textbook are granted permission to make back-up copies for his/her own use only, to make copies for distribution to student of the course the textbook is used in, and to modify this material to best suit their instructional needs. Under no circumstances can copies be made for resale. The publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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