2 WHAT IS A COMMA SPLICE ?Quite simply, a comma splice is the attempt to join two independent clauses with a comma, but without a coordinator. First of all, according to the definition most of you learned in grade school, an independent clause is one that can stand alone as a sentence. When two independent clauses are next to each other, you have only two choices: you can either join them, or you can separate them.(1) To join two independent clauses, you must use acoordinator. The coordinators are the correlatives and thecoordinating conjunctions. (Correlatives don't figure into comma splices, so we will not worry about them.) The coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, yet, and so.
3 Here are all of your possible choices: the period [.], the (2) To separate two independent clauses, you must use some form of end-stop punctuation.Here are all of your possible choices: the period [.], theexclamation point [!],the question mark [?], and the semicolon [;]. (Remember, asemicolon is a weak period, not a strong comma. COMMA SPLICE: I got up late this morning, I didn't have time for breakfast.CORRECTIONS: I got up late this morning, so I didn't have time for breakfast.I got up late this morning, and I didn't have time for breakfast.
4 WHAT IS A RUN-ON SENTENCE ? Definition: In prescriptive grammar, two independent clauses that have been run together without an appropriate conjunction and/or mark of punctuation between them. Usage guides commonly identify two kinds of run-on sentences:fused sentences and comma splices. four Ways of Correcting Run-on Sentences: 1.) Run-on Sentences: Adam is a sweet boy he really loves animals.Adam is a sweet boy, he really loves animals. * To correct a run-on sentence, make it into twosimple sentences. Put a period at the end of the first subject and verb group. Start the second sentence with a capital letter.
5 Correct Sentences: MARIA is a lovely girl. SHE really loves animals. 2 Correct Sentences: MARIA is a lovely girl. SHE really loves animals. 2.) Sometimes two sentences are very closely related in meaning and full end-stop punctuation may seem too strong. A semicolon can then be used to divide the two sentences. Run-on: It was a beautiful day there was not a cloud in the sky. Correct: It was a beautiful day; there was not a cloud in the sky. 3.) A run-on sentence can sometimes be prevented by using a comma and joining word (coordinate conjunction) to join sentences together. Wrong: John went to cinema Sue stayed at home. Correct: John went to cinema, and Sue stayed at home.4.) "[Another way to correct a run-on sentence is to] change the run-on to a complex sentence by placing a subordinating conjunction before one of the clauses:Run-on: I don't play tennis well I have a poor backhand. Correct: I don't play tennis well because I have a poor backhand.
6 WHAT IS A PARALLEL SENTENCE ? creating parallel structure in a sentence is achieved when the writer balances similar grammatical elements such as words, phrases, and clauses to demonstrate they are equal importance. *an example of parallel phrase: - Parallel: Whether at home or at work, he was always busy. Not Parallel: whether at home or while he was working, he was always busy. *in this sentence, a series of adverbs are presented in parallel structure : -Parallel: The manager wrote his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly. - Not Parallel:The manager wrote his report quickly, accurately, and in detail.
7 WHAT IS A SENTENCE FRAGMENT ? A sentence fragment is a sentence that:Does not express a complete thought -Example: Joe is. This sentence is lacking a complete thought- Joe is "something" but we don't know what Joe is. Is lacking a subjectExample: Eating chicken.This sentence is lacking a subject-who or what is eating chicken?
8 Is lacking an actionExample: A book without a cover.What about a book without a cover?Is the book doing something? Is someone doing something to the book? We don't know, because there is no subject Is a dependent clause, standing aloneExample: And I went to the store.The conjunction "and" makes this clause dependent.A dependent clause can't stand alone, it needs to be attached to an independent clause.
9 CORRECTING SENTENCE FRAGMENTS The appropriate correction for sentence fragments depends on what is lacking.The sentence can be corrected by adding in a subject, or verb, joining the dependent clause with an independent clause, or completing the thought.
10 EXAMPLES OF SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Here are some additional examples of sentence fragments, with corrections. Since I like fishing.This is a sentence fragment because it is a dependent clause. "Since" is a subordinating conjunction, and this sentence can't stand alone. We could correct this sentence by removing the word "since," so the sentence would simply read I like fishing.
11 I am going to the lake, since I like fishing. Which is why I cried. I am the subject, like is the verb, fishing is the object.We could also correct this sentence by joining the dependent clause with an independent clause:I am going to the lake, since I like fishing.Which is why I cried. Again, we have a sentence fragment because of the subordinating conjunction "which." This sentence could be corrected by removing "which is why." The sentence "I cried." is a complete sentence. I is the subject, cried is the action. The sentence could also be corrected by joining it with an independent clause.I was sad, which is why I cried.