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Introduction: The Role of Agencies

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1 Introduction: The Role of Agencies

2 Three Sources of the Law
Legislative Judicial Executive President Cabinet Administrative Agencies are established by legislatures, agencies and are usually organized under the executive branch of government, often associated with a Cabinet position conduct legislative, executive, and judicial types of activities exist on both federal and state levels (We will use the federal system as the paradigm for state agencies.)

3 Examples of executive branch agencies are the
Environmental Protection Agency Department of Transportation Federal Reserve Board Department of Agriculture United States Postal Service Department of Veterans’ Affairs Federal Aviation Administration Because of the scope of Congressional delegation of authority, each agency is unique in its structure, its personnel, and the nature of its regulations. Unless talking about a specific agency, administrative agencies’ regulations and decisions must be discussed in broad generalizations.

4 Independent Administrative Agencies: The Fourth Branch of Government?
There are also agencies that are created by Congress as part of the executive branch but are not under the direct control of the president. Many of these are independent regulatory commissions. The president appoints, but cannot remove commissioners except for causes specified under the enabling statute. These agencies are often called the “headless fourth branch” of government.

5 Examples of regulatory commissions are the
Civil Aeronautics Board Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Federal Trade Commission National Labor Relations Board Nuclear Regulatory Commission Securities and Exchange Commission Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Federal Communications Commission

6 An administrative agency may be called a
Board National Labor Relations Board Commission Federal Communications Commission Corporation Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Authority Tennessee Valley Authority Department Department of Transportation Administration Social Security Administration Agency Environmental Protection Agency

7 Role of Administrative Agencies
Legislative: Granted rulemaking authority Congress delegates authority to promulgate regulations to administrative agencies Enact enabling statutes Establish the scope of agency authority Presidential Executive Order may also delegate authority to promulgate regulations to administrative agencies. Judicial: Congress may also grant power to hear and settle disputes arising from the regulation or the enabling statute. Executive: Congress may also grant power to investigate and prosecute violators of regulations.

8 Role of Administrative Agencies
The Securities and Exchange Commission is an example of an agency with powers similar to those of all three branches of government Legislative: promulgates regulations governing what information must be given to investors. Judicial: conducts hearings to determine guilt and mete out punishment to violators of these regulations. Executive: enforces these regulations by prosecuting violators by disciplinary actions and stop orders.

9 Role of Administrative Agencies
Outcomes of agency actions include Rules or regulations (the two words are used interchangeably), which have the same effect as statutes Licenses, which include permits, certificates, other types of permission Advisory opinions, which are authoritative interpretations of statutes and regulation but are not binding Orders, which are the final disposition of any agency action, other than rulemaking Decisions, which adjudicate controversies arising out of the interpretation of statutes or regulations; they are issued in the same manner as court decisions

10 Comparison of the Roles of Statutes and Regulations
Passed by Congress Provide for broad social and economic goals and legal requirements Get their power from the Constitution Reviewed by courts for constitutionality Representative democracy – Congress acts to represent the will of the people REGULATIONS Issued by agencies Get their power from Congress Prescribe specific legal requirements to meet congressional goals Reviewed by courts to determine constitutionality, limits of delegated authority, and whether they are arbitrary and capricious Participatory democracy – agencies must seek and consider public comment

11 The Process of Promulgating Regulations (Rulemaking)
The initiative behind promulgation of a new regulation or a change in a regulation can originate from many sources, including legislation that delegates authority congressional hearings and reports court orders Executive Orders and Office of Management and Budget Circulars agency acting on its own initiative emergency situations, technological developments, etc. political pressures Federal Advisory Committee recommendations petitions and informal requests from affected parties

12 Rulemaking Process Regulation is proposed
Office of Management and Budget reviews under Executive Order 12866 Proposed rule is published in the Federal Register Public comment is invited Office of Management and Budget re-reviews regulation Final regulation published in the Federal Register

13 Rulemaking Process Final regulation published in the Federal Register
Responds to comment Amends Code of Federal Regulations Sets effective date 30-day minimum for most regulations 60-day minimum for major regulations No minimum for good cause Agency may delay or withdraw regulation before it becomes effective Agency submits regulation to Congress and Government Accounting Office, which can nullify the regulation Regulation is placed in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

14 President Executive Order Congressional Oversight Judicial Review
Delegated Authority Congressional Oversight Judicial Review Congress Agency Agency Agency Public Law (Enabling Statute) Federal Register Proposed Regulation Federal Register Final Regulation Code of Federal Regulations Delegated Authority Public Comment

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