Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Memory development Psych. 414 Prof. Jessica Sommerville.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Memory development Psych. 414 Prof. Jessica Sommerville."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory development Psych. 414 Prof. Jessica Sommerville

2 Learning objectives Identify developmental changes in memory Discuss factors that contribute to changes in memory development Recognize implications for real world issues (text)

3 Strategies Major source of development General trends in development –Mediational deficiency: no usage –Production deficiency: don’t spontaneously use strategy but can be trained to use it –Utilization deficiency: spontaneously use strategy but accrue little benefit Age-related changes in use of specific strategies: attentional strategies, rehearsal, organization,

4 Attentional strategies Intentionally focusing on most relevant information Miller and colleagues –Children shown objects from two categories (e.g., animals and furniture) –Told only need to remember one category –7- and 8-year-olds only pay attention to one category; 3- and 4-year-olds attend to both

5 Rehearsal Repeating presented information Spontaneous rehearsal becomes more common throughout grade school years Changes in rehearsal style as a function of age: Ornstein et al (1975): –Presented with list of words; told to rehearse (e.g., yard, man, cat, desk) –3rd-graders: passive rehearsal style (cat, cat, cat…) –8th-graders: active rehearsal style (cat, man, yard, cat)

6 Organization Discovering or imposing structure on items to guide subsequent performance (e.g., organize list into categories) Salatas & Flavell (1976): –1st graders presented with 16 pictures from 4 different categories –Exp. named pictures and categories then randomly distributed pictures on table –Told to put pictures in a way that would help them remember –Only 27% organized pictures according to categories Performance improves with salient task directions

7 Metamemory Knowledge about memory and own memory capabilities Kindergarten age children are not aware that/when memory is imperfect and are unaware of the conditions under which memory improves/decreases Younger children require feedback in order to transfer a memory strategy; older children do not

8 Remembering events Infantile amnesia: inability to recall early events –Total block = before 3 –Few memories = 3-6 Autobiographical memory: memory for specific events that happened to you –Emerges at ~4

9 Autobiographical memory What accounts for the onset of autobiographical memory? –Changes in event encoding –Changes in sense of self –Changes in discussions about past events –Changes in the brain

10 Changes in event encoding (Simcock & Hayne) Events that were encoded before child has language to describe those events may not be accessible to verbal memory Autobiographical memory emerges once children have the ability to encode an event verbally

11 Changes in event encoding (Simcock & Hayne) Evidence: –27-, 33- and 39-month-old children took part in a unique event –Tested 6 months to 1 year later; verbal abilities measured during both time points –Although children demonstrated successful nonverbal memory performance they could not verbally recall the event, despite having the language skills to do so Problems: –At 3 children talk quite well but they don’t form memories that endure into adulthood

12 Changes in sense of self (Howe) Advent of “cognitive self” (18-24 months) accounts for offset of autobiographical memory –Pass mirror self-recognition task at this age The self functions to bind memories (referent around which events can be organized) and for events to have personal significance

13 Changes in sense of self (Howe) Evidence: –Kids with successful MSR performance have better event memory (controlling for language and retention length) –No child successful on event memory task before achieving MSR Problems: –Advent of autobiographical memory is later than successful MSR performance

14 Narrative construction of autobiographical memory Transition to activity of remembering: learning to structure events in a narrative format Talk may contribute to memory processes: –Structure and reinstatement Autobiographical memory enables us to predict and interpret future events to share experiences with others

15 Narrative construction of autobiographical memory Evidence: –Children of elaborative mothers remember more than children with pragmatic/repetitive mothers –Culture differences in emergence of autobiographical memory; linked to prevalence of elaborative mothers –Children don’t remember things that aren’t talked about with their mothers Problems: –Parents discuss events with 2- and 3-year-olds and yet these events aren’t always remembered

Download ppt "Memory development Psych. 414 Prof. Jessica Sommerville."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google