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Teaching Roles for Instructional Software Nashae Lumpkin.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Roles for Instructional Software Nashae Lumpkin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Roles for Instructional Software Nashae Lumpkin

2 Instructional Software Functions Drill-and-practice Tutorial Simulation Instructional game Problem-solving program

3 Drill-and-Practice Teaching Functions Directed teaching strategy Characteristics: Presents items for students to answer Gives feedback on correctness Gives explanation of why answers are incorrect Examples: Flash card activity Chart fill-in activities Branching drill Extensive feedback activities Exercises in which students work example items, usually one at a time, feedback on their correctness.

4 Drill-and-Practice Criteria to Meet Control over presentation rate Answer judging Appropriate feedback for correct and incorrect answers Characteristics tailored to young learners Benefits Immediate and private feedback Increased motivation Saving teacher time correcting student work Math facts Typing skills English & foreign language vocabulary Countries and capitals Preparation for SAT, ACT, TOEFL, etc. Musical keys and notations

5 Drill-and-Practice (cont.) Limitations Instructional overuse or misuses Criticism by constructivists Strategy Supplement and/or replace worksheets and homework exercises Prepare for tests

6 Drill-and-Practice (cont.) Guidelines Set time limits Use only after teaching the concepts Assign individually Use learning stations

7 Tutorial Teaching Functions An entire instructional sequence on a topic, similar to a teacher’s classroom instruction. Directed teaching strategy Linear tutorial – gives the same instructional sequence of explanation, practice, and feedback to all learners regardless of differences in their performance. Branching tutorial – directs learners along alternate paths depending on how they respond to questions and whether they show mastery of certain parts of the material.

8 Tutorial Characteristics: Presents an entire instructional sequence Is complete, rather than supplemental, instruction Includes drill- and-practice functions Can be either linear or branching Standards to meet: Extensive interactivity Thorough user control Appropriate pedagogy Adequate answer-judging and feedback capabilities Appropriate graphics and/or video Adequate recordkeeping Benefits: Immediate, private feedback Time savings Offers instruction that can stand on its own

9 Tutorial (cont.) Limitations: Criticism by constructivists Lack of well-designed products Reflect only one instructional approach Strategies: self-paced reviews of instruction Alternative learning strategies Instruction when teachers are unavailable Guidelines: Assign individually Use learning stations or individual checkout

10 Simulation Teaching Functions A computerized model of a real or imagined system that is designed to teach how the system works. Directed or constructivists teaching strategy

11 Types of Simulations Simulations that Teach About Something Physical simulations – allow users to manipulate things or processes represented on the screen. Iterative simulation – speed up or slow down processes that usually happen either so slowly or so quickly that students cannot see the events unfold. Simulations that Teach How to Do Something Procedural simulations – teach the appropriate sequences of steps to perform certain procedures. Situational simulations – give students hypothetical problem situations and ask them to react.

12 Simulations Characteristics Models a real or imaginary system Can model physical phenomena, procedures, and hypothetical situations Users can see the impact of their actions Criteria System fidelity and accuracy Good documentation to explain system characteristics and uses Benefits Compresses time or slows down processes Gets students involved Makes experimentation safe Makes the impossible possible Saves money and other resources Allows repetition with variations Allows observation of complex processes

13 Simulations (cont.) Limitations & Problems Criticism of virtual lab software Accuracy of models Instructional misuses Strategies In place of or as supplements to lab experiments In place of or as supplements to role-playing In place of or as supplements to field trips To introduce and/or clarify a topic To foster exploration and process learning To encourage cooperation and group work Guidelines Provide usage instruction and guidelines Use either with groups or individuals

14 Instructional Game Teaching Functions Software products that add game-like rules and/or competition to learning activities. Directed or constructivist teaching strategy.

15 Instructional Game Criteria for Effective Games Appealing and appropriate formats and activities. Instructional value. Physical dexterity is reasonable. Social, societal, and cultural considerations are addressed. Limitations and Problems Learning versus having fun. Confusion of game rules and real- life rules. Inefficient learning. Classroom barriers.

16 Instructional Games (cont.) Benefits Improve classroom teaching strategies Makes learning more engaging and motivational Guidelines Use sparingly Involve all students Emphasize the content-area skills first Strategies In place of worksheets and exercises As a reward To teach “noncognitive skills” To teach cooperative group working skills

17 Problem-Solving Teaching Functions Focus on fostering component skills in or approaches to general problem-solving ability, or provide opportunities to practice solving various kinds of content-area problems. Content-free problem-solving skills – general problem-solving ability can be taught directly by specific instruction and practice in its component strategies and subskills. Content-area problem-solving skills – focuses on teaching content-area skills, primarily in mathematics and science and motivates students to attack problems and to recognize problem solving as an integral part of everyday life.

18 Problem-Solving Benefits: Promotes visualization in mathematics problem solving. Improves interest and motivation. Prevents inert knowledge by illustrating situations in which skills apply. Criteria: Challenging, interesting formats. Clear links to developing specific problem- solving skills or abilities. Characteristics: Tools to help students solve problems. Environments that challenge students to create solutions to complex problems. Problems to help develop component problem-solving skills. Opportunities for practice in solving content- area problems.

19 Problem-Solving (cont.) Names versus skills Software claims versus effectiveness Lack of skill transfer Limitations: Directed teaching Constructivist teaching Guidelines: To teach component skills in problem-solving strategies To provide support in solving problems To encourage group problem solving To provide practice in solving problems Strategies:

20 References Roblyer, M. D. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

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